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    Historian Tom Holland, told the Times: The ancient pages were found bound alongside those of a younger copy of the Koran from the seventh century AD.

    It is thought they had been put together because the Hijazi script on the parchment was similar. They had been collected during the s by a Chaldean priest called Alphonse Mingana who put together a huge collection of documents from the Middle East.

    His expeditions to the Middle East were sponsored by Edward Cadbury, from the chocolate dynasty. A special library was built at Selly Oak Colleges in Birmingham, a group of colleges set up by a group of Quakers led by George Cadbury.

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    When the colleges were merged with the University of Birmingham in the s, the collection was brought under the care of the Cadbury Research Library at the university. The fragments of the Koran then lay undiscovered until they were sent for radio carbon dating at the University of Oxford.

    However, these claims are strongly disputed by Muslim scholars, with Mustafa Shah from the School of Oriental and African Studies in London also telling the paper: During this time the Koran was memorised and recited orally but Caliph Abu Bakr, the first leader of the Muslim community after Muhammad's death, ordered the Koranic material to be collected into a book.

    The final authoritative written form was not completed until AD under the third leader Caliph Uthman. Professor Nadir Dinshaw, who studies interreligious relations at the University of Birmingham, described the discovery as 'startling'.

    When it was found last month he said: Instead, the revelations were preserved in 'the memories of men'. Although Muslims believe that Islam is a faith that has always existed and was gradually revealed to humanity by a number of prophets, Muhammad is the one said to have made the complete revelation in the seventh century. The traditional story of the Koran tells how one night in Muhammad, a deeply spiritual and religious man, was meditating in a cave on Mount Hira when he was visited by the angel Jibreel who ordered him to recite.

    Once Jibreel mentioned the name of Allah, Muhammad began to recite words which he came to believe were the words of God. These revelations continued for 23 years and are collectively known as the Koran. When he began to recite the Koran, Muhammad and his small group of followers suffered persecution from unbelievers. In God gave them the command to migrate from Mecca to the city of Medina, some miles to the north, which marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar.

    After several years, Muhammad and his followers returned to Mecca and forgave their enemies. Shortly before Muhammad died, at the age of 63, the majority of the Arabian Peninsula had become Muslim. Within a century of his death Islam had also spread to Spain in the west and as far east as China.

    Islam is now the second largest religion in the world with over one billion followers. The census recorded 2.
    See Article History Alternative Titles: A parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchthe kingdom includes its former colonies in the Lesser Antilles: The capital is Amsterdam and the seat of government The Hague. Windmills at Kinderdijk, The Netherlands. Some 2, square miles 6, square km of the Netherlands consist of reclaimed landthe result of a process of careful water management dating back to medieval times.

    Along the coasts, land was reclaimed from the sea, and, in the interior, lakes and marshes were drained, especially alongside the many rivers. All this new land was turned into polders, usually surrounded by dikes.

    Initially, man power and horsepower were used to drain the land, but they were later replaced by windmillssuch as the mill network at Kinderdijk-Elshout, now a UNESCO World Heritage site. The largest water-control schemes were carried out in the second half of the 19th century and in the 20th century, when steam pumps and, later, electric or diesel pumps came into use. There, perhaps more than anywhere else in the country, the Dutch tradition of social tolerance is readily encountered. In that period Dutch merchant ships sailed the world and helped lay the foundations of a great trading country characterized by a vigorous spirit of enterprise.

    The Dutch economy is open and generally internationalist in outlook. With Belgium and Luxembourgthe Netherlands is a member of the Benelux economic unionwhich in the s and s served as a model for the larger European Economic Community EEC; now embedded in the European Union [EU]of which the Benelux countries are members. If the Netherlands were to lose the protection of its dunes and dikes, the most densely populated part of the country would be inundated largely by the sea but also in part by the rivers.

    This highly developed part of the Netherlands, which generally does not lie higher than about three feet one metre above sea levelcovers more than half the total area of the country. About half of this area more than one-fourth of the total area of the country actually lies below sea level.

    In the other, higher area, the layers of sand and gravel in the eastern part of the country were pushed sideways and upward in some places by ice tongues of the Saale Glacial Stageforming elongated ridges that may reach a height of more than feet metres and are the principal feature of the Hoge Park Veluwe National Park. The only part of the country where elevations exceed feet metres is the border zone of the Ardennes.

    Drainage and dikes The Zuiderzee was originally an estuary of the Rhine River. By natural action it then became a shallow inland sea, biting deep into the land, and eventually it was hollowed into an almost circular shape by the action of winds and tides. In work was begun on the Zuiderzee projectof which the IJsselmeer Dam Afsluitdijkbegun inwas a part. This mile- km- long dam was completed in to finally seal off the Zuiderzee from the Waddenzee and the North Sea.

    In the IJsselmeeror IJssel Lake, formed from the southern part of the Zuiderzee, four large polders, the IJsselmeer Polderswith a total area of about square miles 1, square kmwere constructed around a freshwater basin fed by the IJssel and other rivers and linked with the sea by sluices and locks in the barrier dam. Part of the north dam the Afsluitdijk across the IJsselmeer, Neth. Among the cities that have developed there are Lelystad and Almere. In the southwest, the disastrous gales and spring tide of February 1,which flooded someacreshectares of land and killed 1, people, accelerated the implementation of the Delta Projectwhich aimed to close off most of the sea inlets of the southwestern delta.

    These delta works were designed to shorten the coastline by miles kmcombat the salination of the soil, and allow the development of the area through roads that were constructed over 10 dams and 2 bridges built between and The largest of these damscrossing the five-mile- eight-km- wide Eastern Schelde Oosterschelde estuary, has been built in the form of a storm-surge barrier incorporating dozens of openings that can be closed in the event of flood.

    The barrier is normally open, allowing salt water to enter the estuary and about three-fourths of the tidal movement to be maintained, limiting damage to the natural environment in the Eastern Schelde.

    In the interest of the commerce of the ports of Rotterdam and Antwerpno dams were constructed in the New Waterwaywhich links Rotterdam to the North Sea, or the West Scheldean approach to Antwerp, Belgium. The dikes along these waterways consequently had to be strengthened. Netherlands flood controlFlood control in the Netherlands.

    A region with a very specific character has been formed by the great rivers— RhineLekWaaland Maas Meuse —that flow from east to west through the central part of the country. The landscape in this area is characterized by high dikes along wide rivers, orchards along the levees formed by the rivers, and numerous large bridges over which pass the roads and railways that connect the central Netherlands with the southern provinces.

    Soils In the late Pleistocene Epoch from aboutto 11, years agothe Scandinavian ice sheet covered the northern half of the Netherlands. After this period, a large area in the north of what is now the Netherlands was left covered by moraine glacial accumulation of earth and rock debris.

    In the centre and south, the Rhine and Maas rivers unloaded thick layers of silt and gravel transported from the European mountain chains. Later, during the Holocene Epoch i. If the peat soil was washed away by the sea or dug away by humans for the production of fuel and saltlakes were created. Many of these were reclaimed in later centuries as mentioned abovewhile others now form highly valued outdoor recreational areas.

    Keukenhof Gardens, near Lisse, Netherlands. Southerly and westerly winds predominate, and the sea moderates the climate through onshore winds and the effect of the Gulf Stream. The position of the country—between the area of high-pressure air masses centred on the Azores and the low-pressure region centred on Iceland —makes the Netherlands an area of collision between warm and polar air masses, thus creating unsettled weather.

    Winds meet with little resistance over the flat country, though the hills in the south significantly diminish the velocity of the potent wind that prevails along the coast. On average, frost occurs 60 days per year. Annual rainfall averages about 31 inches mmwith only about 25 clear days per year. The average rainfall is highest in summer August and autumn and lowest in springtime.

    The country is known—not least through the magnificent landscapes of Dutch painters—for its heavy clouds, and on an average day three-fifths of the sky is clouded. Gradients of salt and winter temperature variations cause relatively minor zonal differences in both wild and garden plants from the coast to more continental regions. The effects of elevation are negligible.

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    Vegetation from coastal sand dunes, muddy coastal areas, slightly brackish lakes, and river deltas is especially scarce in the surrounding countries. Lakes, marshes, peatland, woods, heaths, and agricultural areas determine the general floral species.

    Clay, peat, and sand are important soil factors for the inland vegetation regions. Animal life is relegated by region according to vegetation. Seabirds and other sea life, such as mollusks, are found especially in the muddy Waddenzee area and in the extreme southwest.

    Migrating birds pass in huge numbers through the Netherlands or remain for a summer or winter stay. Species of waterbirds and marsh and pasture birds are numerous. Larger mammals, such as roe deerred deer, foxes, and badgers, are mostly restricted to nature reserves. Some species, such as boars, beavers, fallow deermouflons, and muskrats, have been introduced locally or reintroduced.

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    Some reptiles and amphibians are endangered. Numerous species of river fish and river lobsters have become scarce because of water pollution. There is a diversity of brackish and freshwater animals inhabiting the many lakes, canals, and drainage ditches, but the vulnerable species of the nutritionally deficient waters have become rare.

    Nature reserves have been formed by governmental and private organizations. Well-known reserves include the Naardermeer of Amsterdam, the Hoge Veluwe National Park, and the Oostvaardersplassen in the centre of the country.

    Some endangered species are protected by law. In fact, research has made plausible the contention that the autochthonous inhabitants of the region were a mixture of pre-Germanic and Germanic population groups who in the course of time had converged on the main deltaic region of western Europe.

    There emerged from these groups in the 7th and 8th centuries some major polities based on certain ethnic and cultural unities that then came to be identified as Frisians, Saxons, and Franks. The Dutch Republic originated from medieval statelets, and its legal successor, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, has attracted countless immigrants through the centuries.

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    A strong impetus was the principle of freedom of thought, which engendered the relative tolerance that developed in the 16th and 17th centuries. These sentiments were—and are—most manifest in the prosperous commercial and industrial centres in the western provinces, which attracted many members of persecuted religious or political minorities.

    Among these were southern lowlanders, French Huguenotsand Portuguese Jews, along with many people who sought to improve their economic situation, such as Germans and non-Iberian Jews. In the 20th century, immigrants from the former Dutch overseas colonies added to the influx; they included Indonesians and peoples from the Moluccas and from Suriname on the northeast coast of South America.

    In recent decades, however, as Muslims from Turkey and Morocco arrived in large numbersDutch embracement of diversity has been more tenuous. At the beginning of the 21st century, not only did a virulent anti-immigrant movement emerge, but also the government required that immigrants pass a test in their country of origin relating to Dutch language and culture before they were allowed to enter the Netherlands.

    Languages The language in the whole of the country is Dutchsometimes referred to as Netherlandica Germanic language that is also spoken by the inhabitants of northern Belgium where it is called Flemish. Afrikaansan official language of South Africais a variant of the Dutch spoken by 17th-century emigrants from the Holland and Zeeland regions.

    Apart from Dutch, the inhabitants of the northern province of Friesland also speak their own language called Frisian in Englishwhich is closer to English than to either Dutch or German. English, French, and German are among the languages commonly heard. The heritage of Dutch humanism The considerable hospitality exhibited by the Dutch is perhaps to some extent rooted in the spirit of humanism that was typical of the Dutch Republic of the 16th to the 18th century.

    Figures such as Desiderius Erasmus in the 16th century and Hugo Grotius in the 17th century epitomize that spirit. It resulted in a rather pragmatic mode of thinking that has dominated Dutch bourgeois culture since the 16th century, coexisting with growing commercial acumen.

    Evolving Dutch society came to encompass a diversity of religious traditions, from rigid Calvinism and more-tolerant forms of Protestantism to conformist Roman Catholicism. Calvinism was always the religion of the national elite, while Roman Catholicism could be practiced only behind closed doors before when all religions were pronounced equal before the lawand at various times certain sects were persecuted.

    In comparison with some of its neighbours, the Netherlands historically has shown a remarkable degree of religious tolerance. In terms of formal allegiancethe present Dutch population can be divided into three almost equal groups relative to religion: Roman Catholics the southern provinces of Limburg and Noord-Brabant are traditionally almost monolithically Catholic, but in terms of absolute numbers more Catholics live north of the great rivers than in Noord-Brabant and LimburgProtestants particularly the adherents to the Netherlands Reformed Churchand the nonreligious.

    The adherents of Islam have developed a wide range of institutions in the Netherlands and constituted about 6 percent of the population at the turn of the 21st century. Old Church by a canal in the old inner town of Delft, Netherlands. Secularization has made its mark in the Netherlands; the Christian Democrat parties of the centre, whose political platform included planks such as public funding for religious education, had attracted more than 50 percent of the vote up to the s, but in the s they were ejected from government for the first time in the 20th century.

    Nonetheless, the educational institutions and political parties that evolved in the late 19th and early 20th centuries along denominational lines remain as potent as the more or less secularized parties and institutions that sprang from socialist and liberal movements. These more or less converging societal groupings have not completely obliterated a range of age-old regional cultural distinctions.

    They are sometimes vividly preserved, as in the case of the northern province of Frieslandwhich proudly conserves the ancient Frisian culture. With more-recent immigration, new cultural groups are becoming significant.

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    Settlement patterns Modern urbanization in the Netherlands took place mainly in the 20th century. In more than half the population was still living in villages or towns of fewer than 10, inhabitants.

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    A century later this proportion had decreased to about one-tenth. There has, nevertheless, been a decrease in the city-proper populations of the large metropolitan centres.

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    These inner cities are now becoming economic and cultural centres, their populations having spread outward in search of newer housing and greater living space in suburbs, new residential quarters of rural settlements, and new towns.

    More recently, however, government planning policy has aimed at again concentrating the population in and around the existing cities, especially in the western portion of the country.
    Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle.

    Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here - including the listed dating ranges - are noted. Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted.

    Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site. If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition. As an alternative, one can do a search of this website. Figured Flasks Figured flasks is a generic name for the large class of liquor flasks primarily produced between and Due to their esthetic and decorative nature, these flasks were infrequently discarded unless broken so many survived to the present day.

    Figured flasks also include c alabash bottles example belowwhich are covered separately here because of their distinctive shape, and some flasks that fit the form description but are just embossed with lettering, i. Unlike most other types of liquor bottles which are generally more common without embossing, figured flasks are by definition embossed since the embossed motifs and molded designs are what defines them as figured flasks, though many shapes are also unique to this group e.

    Unembossed flasks with shapes similar to some of the later s primarily figured flasks are considered generically in the "Flask not considered figured " category. The figured flasks described here represent a small cross-section of the hundreds of different types made during their heyday.

    These type items are occasionally found on historic archaeological sites though usually as fragments since they were not usually discarded until broken. This book is the source of information on figured flasks and contains by far the most comprehensive listing with illustrations and is the accepted classification system for figured flasks.

    Here the authors divide figured flasks into 9 distinct "Form Groups" and includes dating ranges for when that form group was first produced. The book also covers most other types of 18th and 19th century American bottles and is an almost mandatory reference for serious students of American made bottles of the 18th and 19th century. Because of the beauty - and possibly the intrinsic value - of figured flasks, many have been reproduced at various times during the 20th century.

    Some of these reproductions are very hard to discern from originals to the inexperienced eye. The bottles pictured in this section are all early to midth century originals. Decorative flasks The decorative group of flasks is a category of "pictorial" flasks made up of four primary types: The figured flask pictured to the left and the colorful group of five to the upper right is commonly referred to by collectors as a scroll flask, though in the early days of collecting and probably even now they were referred to as "violin" flasks.

    What 19th century glass makers called these is lost to history. This style of flask was introduced around and were extremely popular through the s and s. Popularity apparently waned by the beginning of the Civil War early s and it appears that very few if any were made after that time. Most scroll flasks were likely made by Midwestern glassmakers, though most do not have makers marks to allow for precise attribution. Scroll flasks were primarily made in half-pint, pint most common size by farand quart sizes, though smaller and larger examples are known, including a gallon size.

    Scroll flasks almost always have some type of pontil scar, i. The range of colors possible in these flasks is almost unlimited, though they were by most commonly made in shades of aquamarine - like the example above. Finishes found on these flasks included primarily the following: The aqua scroll flask pictured above is very typical in design and likely dates from the late s or s.

    Click on the following links for more images of this pint scroll flask from different views: To the right is pictured a very similar pint scroll flask GIX in an unusual yellow green color with a cracked-off and non-refired finish; click thumbnail image to enlarge.

    Click quart scroll flask to view a picture of a quart sized scroll flask with a double-ring finish. This quart scroll also has an iron pontil scar, is classified as GIX-1 or 2, and likely dates from the mid to late s. A colorful grouping of five scroll flasks dating from the late s to late s is also shown at the top of this section above. Another very popular style of early figured flask is referred to as the "sunburst" flask, which encompasses various types based on the molded design on the body.

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    Sunburst flasks are among some of the oldest of the figured flasks dating as early as to and as late as the s for a few. Most are believed to have been primarily made by various New England glass works. Sunburst flasks were made in only pint and half-pint sizes. They all have pontil scars - either glass-tipped or blowpipe types - indicating early manufacture. Colors can vary somewhat widely, though the large majority are in shades of olive green and olive amber, various other true greens, shades of amber, and aqua.

    Finishes are typically straight sheared or cracked-off or subtle variations like the rolled, flare, or globular flare typically with with obvious re-firing; and occasionally with hard to classify variations of the double ring, mineral, or others. For more information on sunburst flasks check out the following external link: Click on the following links for more pictures of this flask: As an example of how a given type of bottle can be used or re-used for a non-type typical product, click on the following links: This shows an example of this same type sunburst flask that was used or more likely re-used for "SPTS.

    Spirits of camphor was historically used internally an expectorant and still is used externally muscle aches and pains though is now considered to be a more or less hazardous substance if ingested. It is definitely not a liquor though it has "spirits" in the name. The pint, clear green sunburst flask pictured to the right is an earlier product of same Keene, NH. These flasks are often called "two pounders" by collectors as they are almost decanter-like with heavy glass weighing between 2 and 3 pounds.

    Click the following links to view more pictures of this flask: Some of these flasks have an eagle design instead of the urn on the reverse, but are otherwise very similar.

    The symbols of the cornucopia and urn were easily recognized during the time as symbolic of the young country's U. Cornucopia flasks were made in only the pint and half-pint sizes. These flasks seem to all have pontil scars - typically either a glass-tipped or blowpipe pontil - reflecting their early manufacturing dates; iron pontils are unusual. Colors are once again variable but dominated by olive green, olive amber, other shades of amber and green, and aqua.

    Finishes are almost always a of the straight sheared or cracked-off varieties or subtle variations like the rolled, flare, or globular flare typically with with obvious re-firing. The pictured flask both sides shown - cornucopia side to above left; urn to right is a product of Coventry Glass Works, Coventry, CT. These flasks are very rare, very early s or early sunusual, and unlikely to be encountered. Thus they are not covered. Users can also find some information on these type flasks, including pictures, at the following link: These could also be considered as "historical" flasks by some Munsey Most Masonic flasks have some type of design on the reverse that features an American eagle.

    These types of flasks are some of the earlier of the figured flasks dating primarily between and the s though a few date as late as the Civil War.

    One of the later type Masonic flasks is covered in the calabash section. These earlier Masonic flasks were only made in pint and less frequently, half-pint sizes. Like most figured flasks, the Masonic flasks can be found in a wide range of colors though most were produced in different shades of aqua, amber, and green olive green, blue-green, olive amber.

    All of these earlier Masonic flasks are pontil scarred, usually of the glass-tipped or blowpipe type. Iron pontils are rare or possibly unknown empirical observations.

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    Finishes are usually straight shearedcracked-off, or rolled with occasional double ring or other simple applied finishes. The above pictured blue-green Masonic flask has a stylized eagle embossed on the reverse and dates between and about It was made in a two-piece hinge mold, has vertically ribbed sides, and a glass-tipped pontil scar on the base. Click on the following links for various view images of this flask: It was also made at the same Keene glassworks as the previous flask, though a decade or more later.

    Click Masonic-eagle reverse to see the other side of this flask. Another shape type variation of Masonic-eagle flask - and a common flask shape during the s, s and s - is pictured to the right. Historical Flasks This grouping of flasks is quite varied as to embossing, design, and shape. The unifying theme of these flasks - and what differentiates these flasks from other groups - is their historical connection be it emblematic, symbolic, or human. The most popular image on figured flasks is not surprisingly the American eagle - often embossed on both sides of the flask.

    The diversity of different types of eagles is amazing, ranging from the bold and artistic eagles like shown to the right to stiff and simplistic eagles like shown at this link - Pike's Peak-eagle flask reverse view. In general, the more detailed and artistically pleasing eagles are on the earlier flasks s to s and the more simplistic ones on the later flasks s and s though there are exceptions of course Munsey Eagles or other symbols of the U.

    Because of this shapes, sizes, finishes, mold types, and manufacturing processes vary as widely as the period allows with no particular diagnostic features unique to the group like some of the other figured flask types.

    The flask pictured above is a "beaded edge" Washington-Eagle flask GI-2 that dates from the s or s and was likely made by an early Pennsylvania glass company. Click on the following links to view more images of this flask: The reverse of this flask features a bust of George Washington and is pictured below. Another variation of the American eagle were the quite artistic versions found on the flasks produced by several Connecticut glass factories. It classifies as GII, has a smooth cup-bottom mold conformation a very unusual mold type for the eraand a crudely applied double ring finish.

    These flasks were produced using both pontil rods pontil scarred as well as a snap-case tools smooth base. Yet another variation of the American eagle is found on an assortment of highly ornate flasks that may have been made by one of the Louisville, KY. This pint flask similar examples also were produced in quart and half gallon sizes has a blowpipe pontil scar, was blown in a two-piece key mold, and is classified as GII The likeness of many people are emblazoned on the sides of figured flasks.

    However, none were as popular as George Washington with at least 72 flasks bearing his likeness. Flasks in this category are a mixed lot with little physical commonality except that they are flasks and made during the figured flask period of to or so. Colors, shapes, sizes, finishes, and other manufacturing methods vary as widely as the period allows. There are even a few late 19th century flasks that were produced for Presidential elections Grover Cleveland, William Jennings Bryan, William McKinley that are cataloged within this group.

    The flask pictured to the right is a Washington-Eagle flask GI-2 that was discussed above with links to more pictures of the item. Some of the most common flasks in this category are the Washington-Taylor series of flasks, which contains at least 37 different examples.

    1 thoughts on “WELL HUNG HEART

    1. How does he call him? . I want to watch movies with him, because I like but I do not know what he's name?

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