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    Fictional character biography[ edit ] Batman and the Outsiders[ edit ] Dr. Helga Jace used a device to give Prince Brion Markov superpowers with which he could stop an insurrection mounted by the evil Baron Bedlam. After stopping the insurrection, the heroes decide to remain together as the Outsiderswith Batman who has resigned from the Justice League as team leader. When he is not active as a superhero, Brion attends college in the US and begins dating classmate Denise Howard.

    In one of their earliest missions, the Outsiders team up with the Teen Titanswho are led at the time by Batman's sidekick, Robin. Fearing scandal, the king sent Tara to be raised in the United States. Brion is happy to be reunited with his half-sister, though Terra is less happy due to her fears that Brion will say the wrong thing and possibly expose the fictional back-story she has told the Titans about herself and how she gained her powers.

    Several weeks later, Terra betrays the Titans for Deathstroke. In the climactic battle between Titans and the alliance of Deathstroke and Terra, Terra's sociopathic personality breaks down as she tries to kill both the Titans and Deathstroke, when Deathstroke's son Joseph intervenes on behalf of the Titans to stop his father.

    In the end, Terra accidentally kills herself when she tries to bury the Titans alive in a massive rock storm. At first, the Titans do not tell Geo-Force of her betrayal, letting him think that she has died a hero. However, Batman later reveals the truth to Geo-Force, which leaves him even more heartbroken. In his depression, Geo-Force cannot bring himself to continue wearing his earthtone costume, as it reminds him of Tara, who wore a similar uniform.

    Designed and suggested by Batman, a new green and gold costume is presented to Brion by his teammates to lift his spirits. It works well, and Geo-Force wears green and gold for most of his career. The colors have a dual importance to Geo-Force as both the colors of his native Markovia's flag, as well as symbolically representing the Earth, from which his powers are derived greenwhile reminding him how precious his gifts truly are gold.

    By the time he joins the Justice League, however, Geo-Force has returned to another version of his old earthtone uniform. During this time, Geo-Force is the unofficial new leader of the team. However, this information eventually comes out and Major Disaster destroys their base.

    Around this time, the sovereignty of Markovia again comes under threat. Investigating the mysterious new prime ministerGeo-Force leads a team of Outsiders and Infinity, Inc. Having grown up in the main castle, it is easy for Geo-Force to lead the team in. He soon discovers that the Psycho-Pirate in the disguise of long-term Outsiders enemy Baron Bedlam is attempting to conquer the country.

    The two teams join forces to stop Psycho-Pirate and leave on good terms. Brion, meanwhile, has a one-night stand with Looker when the team is stranded on a desert island. The move strains the relationship between Brion and his girlfriend Denise, as well as Looker's relationship with her husband.

    Brion and Looker agree to remain platonic friends afterward. The United States government withdraws any foreign aid from Markovia until that nation releases the true names of the Outsiders. King Gregor, Brion's older brother, is murdered before he can make a decision. Brion becomes king, but he is forced to abdicate and is imprisoned when his sister-in-law, Iona Gregor's wifereveals she is pregnant. His teammate Looker reveals to Brion that the murderer of his brother was the team's trusted friend and scientist associate, Doctor Jace.

    Jace has betrayed the team for the Manhunters because she admires their dedication to knowledge. In the end, Jace dies, along with a mind-controlled Metamorpho. This, along with a second battle with the descendants of teammate Looker, which results in Looker being temporarily stripped of her powers and Halo left injured and comatose, causes the Outsiders to disband and Brion to retire as Geo-Force. The latter two are on hand to sell a new battlesuit to Markovia. Queen Iona has teamed up with Roderick, a vampirein order to kill Geo-Force, though the first attempt makes it seem as if Technocrat is under attack.

    Using a vampire's inability to be recorded, Roderick frames Geo-Force for Iona's on-air murder, forcing the team to run. Geo-Force and the Outsiders are on the run for some time, hiding out mostly in America.

    They eventually clear their names and destroy Roderick and his vampiric legions. At the end of the second Outsiders series, Brion marries his long-time girlfriend, Denise Howard. Brion and the new Terra awaiting the results of the DNA test. During this time, another Terra has appeared as part of a group known as the Team Titanswho appear to have come from the future. This new Terra claims to have been a normal girl who was given Terra's appearance and powers as a result of a DNA virus.

    Geo-Force's first attempt to talk to her meets with failure when he accidentally gets swept up in a rock column she has created during a loud party. He finds her again at the Titans headquarters. After a brief fight with her friends, he manages to sit down with her. The new Terra convinces him she is not his sister. Unfortunately, rogue Markovian scientists attack with the intention of forcibly duplicating Terra's powers.

    Geo-Force and the other Titans rescue her. Further revelations imply that this Terra is in fact from their time, when the original Terra's grave is dug up and her corpse is missing from her coffin. Brion invites Terra to live in Markovia, which she accepts, as her group of Titans is disbanding. Terra is afraid of finding out the results, fearful that she might, in fact, be a villainous traitor.

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    When the test results come back positive, Brion lies to Terra, telling her that the results are negative. Around this time, as part of the Day of Judgement incident, a portal to hell threatens to swallow the country of Markovia. A small team of Outsiders, including the newer Terra, Katana, and the original Halo, are on hand to help combat it.

    Geo-Force and Terra become kidnap victims of a strange cult run by a man with mind-control powers.

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    They are rescued by the super-team called the "Birds of Prey". He later is a part of the army of heroes gathered by the Justice Society at the end of 52 to battle Black Adam who, in his global killing spree after the death of his wife and brother-in-law, has murdered Terra II.

    Justice League of America[ edit ] While sailing in his yacht off the coast of Greece, Geo-Force suddenly finds himself losing control over his powers, which have suddenly changed to include his sister's earth manipulation powers. This sudden increase in power, which causes Geo-Force to black out, is ultimately caused by the villainous Deathstroke through as yet unrevealed means.

    Geo-Force seeks help from the newly reformed Justice League of Americabecoming an unofficial member of the group. This will ultimately be revealed to be Deathstroke's overall plan, as he ultimately confronts Geo-Force in order to blackmail him into becoming a spy, just like Terra, in exchange for Deathstroke's promise to one day remove the added powers he forced upon Geo-Force.

    Unfortunately for Deathstroke, however, Geo-Force informs SupermanBatman, and Wonder Woman of Deathstroke's scheme and agrees to become a double agent: Unfortunately, the scheme falls apart when Lex Luthor organizes a new incarnation of the Injustice League and captures the Justice League.

    While recovering from his injuries, Geo-Force is "traded" to Batman's latest incarnation of The Outsiders, much to Geo-Force's dismay and, ultimately, acceptance. After contemplating murder, he is talked out of it by Black Lightning and Rocky Davis of the Challengers of the Unknown. He loses a lot of blood to Deathstroke in their fight.

    However, he sets their confrontation at the same alley and building complex where Deathstroke's second son Jericho was held after being kidnapped. Slashing his own throat in the same manner as his son was cut lets Deathstroke's guard down, allowing Brion to impale Deathstroke with his own sword through his own body. Believing he has defeated Deathstroke, while sacrificing his own life, he is surprised to wake up in the hospital. It is thought that he single-handedly took down Deathstroke, but no one knows that Geo-Force was trying to commit suicide.

    Geologic Cross Sections [Athro, Limited Earth Science]

    Geo-Force becomes the field leader of the Outsiders and is still secretly living with the shame of his actions. Claiming to have been freed from the dark force that was controlling her, Tara begs Brion to kill her.

    Geo-Force turns Terra into a statue and her ring is destroyed by Halo. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Geo-Force later marries his long-time girlfriend, Denise Howard.

    He meets Katana for the first time and helps her and the Suicide Squad battle the terrorist organisation Kobra, attempting to invade Markovia. Powers and abilities[ edit ] As implied by his code nameall of Brion's powers are in some way related to the planet Earth. He can manipulate the Earth's gravitational field to make an object heavier "plus-gravity" or lighter "null-gravity". He can project scorching " lava blasts" in imitation of terrestrial volcanoes.

    By using his null-gravity power on himself, coupled with lava blasts for propulsion, Geo-Force can fly at great speeds for short periods of time.

    His teammate Black Lightning once remarked that Geo-Force weakens after flying 1, miles. Geo-Force has demonstrated the ability to manipulate the Earth itself, in a manner similar to Terra. This ability is not quite explained in the instance where he turns the reanimated corpse of Terra to stone. He once used his gravity manipulation powers to enhance his own super-strength, strengthening him sufficiently enough to fight Superman toe-to-toe.

    He can now be slashed by sharp items, [7] but usually, deep wounds trigger an increase in his powers, leading to earth-manipulation abilities.

    Only one with royal Markov blood can retain these powers permanently. The source of Geo-Force's powers is the Earth itself. During his first adventure, Geo-Force is apparently killed and buried by enemy soldiers. The Earth nurtured Geo-Force, healing his wounds and restoring him. His powers and health will deteriorate if he is out of contact with the Earth for long time periods. At some point, he is contacted by Mera while trying to make an alliance with the Atlanteans, due to the Amazonian Invasion of the UK.

    He is later captured by Aquamanwho attaches the young king to a machine constructed by Vulko in order to amplify Brion's powers of manipulation of the Earth's gravitational field. It is through Brion that Aquaman manages to cause Western Europe to sink into the sea. This Brion Markov played by Eric Floyd is a scientist for Unidac Industries, who invents a device that can manipulate seismic activity.

    After the task is complete, Merlyn murders Markov and his staff. He is one of the latest members of the Outsiders when they help Batman fight Kobra. Geo Force is the older brother of Terra and the crown prince of Markovia, his and Terra's homeland.
    Early history[ edit ] In Ancient GreeceAristotle BCE observed that fossils of seashells in rocks resembled those found on beaches — he inferred that the fossils in rocks were formed by living animals, and he reasoned that the positions of land and sea had changed over long periods of time.

    Leonardo da Vinci — concurred with Aristotle's interpretation that fossils represented the remains of ancient life. Steno argued that rock layers or strata were laid down in succession, and that each represents a "slice" of time. He also formulated the law of superposition, which states that any given stratum is probably older than those above it and younger than those below it. While Steno's principles were simple, applying them proved challenging.

    Over the course of the 18th century geologists realized that: Sequences of strata often become eroded, distorted, tilted, or even inverted after deposition Strata laid down at the same time in different areas could have entirely different appearances The strata of any given area represented only part of Earth's long history The Neptunist theories popular at this time expounded by Abraham Werner — in the late 18th century proposed that all rocks had precipitated out of a single enormous flood.

    John McPhee asserts that "as things appear from the perspective of the 20th century, James Hutton in those readings became the founder of modern geology". This theory, known as " Plutonism ", stood in contrast to the "Neptunist" flood-oriented theory. Formulation of geologic time scale[ edit ] The first serious attempts to formulate a geologic time scale that could be applied anywhere on Earth were made in the late 18th century.

    Geologic Cross Sections [Athro, Limited Earth Science]

    The most influential of those early attempts championed by Werneramong others divided the rocks of Earth's crust into four types: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary. Each type of rock, according to the theory, formed during a specific period in Earth history.

    It was thus possible to speak of a "Tertiary Period" as well as of "Tertiary Rocks. The identification of strata by the fossils they contained, pioneered by William SmithGeorges CuvierJean d'Omalius d'Halloyand Alexandre Brongniart in the early 19th century, enabled geologists to divide Earth history more precisely.

    It also enabled them to correlate strata across national or even continental boundaries. If two strata however distant in space or different in composition contained the same fossils, chances were good that they had been laid down at the same time.

    Detailed studies between and of the strata and fossils of Europe produced the sequence of geologic periods still used today. Naming of geologic periods, eras and epochs[ edit ] Early work on developing the geologic time scale was dominated by British geologists, and the names of the geologic periods reflect that dominance.

    The "Cambrian", the classical name for Wales and the "Ordovician", and "Silurian", named after ancient Welsh tribes, were periods defined using stratigraphic sequences from Wales.

    The "Permian" was named after PermRussia, because it was defined using strata in that region by Scottish geologist Roderick Murchison. However, some periods were defined by geologists from other countries. The "Jurassic" was named by a French geologist Alexandre Brongniart for the extensive marine limestone exposures of the Jura Mountains. British geologists were also responsible for the grouping of periods into eras and the subdivision of the Tertiary and Quaternary periods into epochs.

    In John Phillips published the first global geologic time scale based on the types of fossils found in each era. Chronological dating When William Smith and Sir Charles Lyell first recognized that rock strata represented successive time periods, time scales could be estimated only very imprecisely since estimates of rates of change were uncertain. While creationists had been proposing dates of around six or seven thousand years for the age of Earth based on the Bibleearly geologists were suggesting millions of years for geologic periods, and some were even suggesting a virtually infinite age for Earth.

    Until the discovery of radioactivity in and the development of its geological applications through radiometric dating during the first half of the 20th century, the ages of various rock strata and the age of Earth were the subject of considerable debate. The first geologic time scale that included absolute dates was published in by the British geologist Arthur Holmes.

    The commission's most recent work is described in the geologic time scale of Gradstein et al. The term was coined by Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer in to describe the current time, in which humans have had an enormous impact on the environment.

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    It has evolved to describe an "epoch" starting some time in the past and on the whole defined by anthropogenic carbon emissions and production and consumption of plastic goods that are left in the ground.

    This table is arranged with the most recent geologic periods at the top, and the most ancient at the bottom. The height of each table entry does not correspond to the duration of each subdivision of time.
    Table of Contents Jerusalem Tel Aviv The Hula Valley, an agricultural region in northern Israel with abundant fresh water, affords an example of the delicate balance between nature and human development.

    The past years of human settlement in the valley has been a continuous attempt to impose order upon nature. The drainage of Lake Hula and its surrounding swamps in the s was the epitome of the attempts to alter the environment to suit human needs. Though initially perceived as a great national achievement for the fledgling State of Israel, with time it became evident that the benefits from transforming a "wasteland," Lake Hula and its swamps, into an agricultural "blessing" were limited.

    Consequently, a small section of the former lake and swamp region was recently reflooded in an attempt to prevent further soil deterioration and to revive the spirit of an extinct ecosystem. As aquatic scientists keenly aware of contemporary environmental issues, we hope to highlight the conflicting demands between social and economic development and environmental protection and conservation.

    We also hope to illustrate the vital role that scientists can have in resolving such a conflict. Thousands of metres of land subsidence during the formation of the Rift Valley about a million years ago are still evident in the steep slopes of the Golan Heights to the east and the Upper Galilee mountains to the west, rising metres above sea level.

    Basaltic hills of about metres above sea level along the line Korazim— Rosh Pina —Gadot and originating from late Pleistocene volcanic activity define the southern border of the valley. In the north, the valley is delimited by a more gradual transition to the elevated Lebanon Valley, also rising to about metres above sea level.

    As such, the Hula Valley is clearly defined, covering an area of square kilometres 25 kilometres long by kilometres wide. Lacustrine sediments rich in lime indicate that a fresh water lake existed at times, expanding in size and depth during wetter periods. Drier periods led to the formations of swamps, during which peat, rich in organic matter, was deposited.

    The most recent lake, the historic Lake Hula, was formed about 20, years ago. During at least 14, years prior to the formation of Lake Hula the valley was swampland. The climate of the Hula Valley today is Mediterranean, with hot dry summers and cool rainy winters. However, unlike the moderate Mediterranean climate of the coastal plains, the mountain-enclosed topography of the Hula Valley leads to more extreme seasonal, as well as daily, temperature fluctuations.

    Annual rainfull varies greatly between different parts of the valley and ranges from about millimetres in the south, to up to millimetres in the north.

    Geologic Cross Sections [Athro, Limited Earth Science]

    More than 1, millimetres of precipitation falls on the Herman mountain range mostly in the form of snowfeeding underground springs, including the sources of the Jordan River, and giving rise to much of the abundant water flowing through the valley.

    The wind regime is dominated by regional patterns in the winter, with occasional strong north-easterly wind storms Sharkiyah in Arabic. In summer, local warming and cooling patterns produce strong westerly to northerly winds in the afternoons. Lake Hula and the Swamps With its long history of human settlement, it is not surprising that Lake Hula or Huleh was referred to by different names. Yam Sumchi is used in Talmudic literature. The Waters of Merom has sometimes been used — erroneously — in scientific literature, although that term refers specifically to springs on the western side of the valley.

    Prior to its drainage in the s, Lake Hula was 5. It was a shallow, pear-shaped basin about one and a half metres deep in summer and three metres deep in winter. The area north of the lake was covered by peat swamps with dense stands of papyrus. Open-water ponds covered with yellow water-lilies occurred in deeper depressions within this papyrus "jungle. A belt of reeds, mostly restricted to mineral soils, encompassed most of the lake and swamps.

    Altogether, the lake and swamps covered up to 60 square kilometres, with large seasonal and inter-annual variations due to changes in water level.

    About two thirds of the water flowing into Lake Hula came from the Jordan River. Prior to the draining of the Hula, the Jordan split again into three main deltaic branches before entering the swamps. The stronger and perennial western branch, the Jordan itself, crossed the swamps and emptied into the lake.

    The two eastern branches, Tura and Az- Zawiya, had only winter flow and disappeared in the swamps. Other streams from the Golan Heights, the eastern Galilee mountains and from approximately 70 springs in the Hula Valley itself also fed the lake and swamps.

    Lake Hula was characterized by its tranquillity. The lake extended into the swamps, adjacent springs and streams, creating an even greater diversity of inter-connected aquatic niches. This habitat diversity supported the floral and faunal richness of the old Hula, and rendered it a key feeding station for migratory birds on their route between Europe and Africa. According to the researcher Ch. Dimentman and co-authors, Lake Hula probably contained the richest diversity of aquatic biota in the Levant, south of Lake Amiq in Turkey, which was also drained at about the same time as the Hula.

    Based on an extensive literature review and an examination of archived samples, they listed species of insects, 95 crustaceans, 30 snails and clams, 21 fishes, seven amphibians and reptiles, birds and three mammals. Human Settlement and Development The natural setting of the Hula, with ample water, abundant fish, waterfowl and other wildlife, as well as rich terrestrial and plant resources on its flanks, attracted human settlement from early prehistoric times.

    During early historical times, the Hula Valley was a main junction on the important trade route connecting the large commercial centre of Damascus with the eastern Mediterranean coast and Egypt. The Bronze Age cities of Hazor and Layish were built at key locations on this route approximately 4, years ago. Toward the end of the 13th century BCE, the Israelite tribe of Dan destroyed the city of Layish and built in its place a new city which they named Dan.

    This marked the beginning of about years of Israelite rule over the Hula Valley, which ended when the valley was captured by the Assyrian armies of Tiglath Pileser III and its inhabitants were driven away. Agriculture in the Hula Valley was always dependent on the effective use and control of water resources.

    Earth Science, folds faults and stuff.

    Farming communities which mastered the use of irrigation endured, but unsuitable irrigation methods led to the proliferation of mosquitoes and malaria. It is uncertain when malaria first appeared in the Hula Valley, and its extent and impact varied with irrigation and drainage practices.

    Throughout the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and early Arab periods fourth century bce to eighth centuries CE rural settlement in the Hula Valley was uninterrupted. Literary sources testify to dense and prosperous settlement at the time of the Crusades.

    Traditional crops were rice as early as the Hellenistic periodcotton and sugar cane starting after the Arab conquest insorghum and maize. Water buffalo were introduced in the eighth century or earlier and raised on the rich pasture lands as an alternative cattle species, supplying milk and serving as beasts of burden. During the 14thth centuries, there were no permanent settlements in the valley, though Bedouin shepherds continued to graze their flocks in the pasture lands.

    The basalt arches of the bridge narrowed the bed of the Jordan River so that Lake Hula rose higher in winter and the swamps expanded northwards almost to the edge of the valley. Settlement resumed between and primarily by run-away slaves, deserters from the Egyptian army, and other refugees.

    These Arab settlers are collectively referred to as Ghawarna. They subsisted primarily from the local assets of the swamps, building their houses from papyrus and earning income from reed-based crafts such as mat-making. They practiced primitive agriculture based on water buffalo husbandry and cultivation of rice, wheat and maize. The Ghawarna suffered severely from malaria, but many of them, especially those of African origin, had a genetic resistance to the disease.

    Still, mortality rates were high and nearly all newborn children died in infancy. Nevertheless, a population of not more than 3, people was maintained by a constant influx of newcomers.

    During the British Mandateanti-malarial measures such as planned drainage led to improved living conditions and bythe Ghawarna population had increased to nearly 12, persons. A second wave of Jewish settlement in the valley started in Initially, these settlements also suffered heavily from malaria, but improvements in agricultural practices and the use of pesticides such as DDT reduced the infection rate among the Jewish settlers to below one percent.

    In total, by there were 12 Jewish and 23 Arab settlements in the Hula Valley. Following the etablishment of the State of Israel and during the War of Independence, the Arab inhabitants left the valley, moving to neighbouring Arab countries. The Hula Drainage Project The concept of draining the lake and swamps of the Hula Valley so as to increase the amount of arable and grazeable land and eradicate malaria, extends back to the 19th century.

    John MacGregor, a Scottish traveller to the Hula Valey in the s, commented in his notes that in his opinion, the entire lake and swamps could be drained in one year by digging a yard-long, 20 feet-deep canal at the outlet. Attempts to drain the swamps were made by the Ghawarna in the late s, by enlarging the outlet and by digging drainage canals.

    The extent of their operations and their effectiveness is uncertain. Soon afterwards, the valley became the property of the Turkish Sultan Abed el-Hamid. His administration planned to drain the swamps in order to gain profits from agriculture. However, after several failed attempts they turned the task into a concession for private companies. The concession was sold initially to Syrian merchants. After many years of dealings and bargaining, the drainage concession was purchased by the British Palestine Land Development Company in But due to the outbreak of political disturbances in and economic difficulties during World War II the Hula draining project materialized only after the State of Israel was established in The declared objectives of the Hula draining project were two-fold: Additional perceived benefits were to be an increase in the water potential of the newly established state by reducing evaporation losses, and utilization of peat as fertilizer and for industry.

    The draining operations, carried out by the Jewish National Fund JNFthe agency responsible for land development in Israel, began in and were completed by The draining was achieved by two main engineering operations.

    Geologic Cross Sections [Athro, Limited Earth Science]

    The Jordan River downstream of the lake was deepened and widened, especially at the basalt plug, to allow the outflow of larger quantities of water. In the swamp region north of the lake, the Jordan was diverted into two newly-dug peripheral canals, the East Canal and the West Canal, which enclosed most of the peat lands.

    These canals converged near the centre of the former lake and then followed the original but now deepened course of the Jordan, continuing southward to Lake Kinneret. Consequently, the section of the Jordan going through the centre of the drained valley as well as other waters flowing through the valley were channeled through a dense network of secondary drainage and irrigation canals to the East and West Canals.

    In the years following the completion of the drainage project, sewage from the growing town of Kiryat Shmona was also directed into the West Canal. Public interest associated with the draining project was so great that the digging sites at the Hula Valley became major tourist attractions. In fact, it was necessary to restrict tourism in order to prevent delays in the progress of the work. At the same time, concern was already voiced by scientists and naturalists who opposed the project because they viewed the swamps as an ecological treasure that must be preserved for future generations.

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    The Dry Hula Valley Given the conditions and knowledge existing at the time, the drainage of the lake and swamps of the Hula seemed fully justified. Not only did it provide solutions to urgent needs of the young state, it was also considered a great engineering achievement and followed common practice worldwide. Moreover, the increase in cultivable land and the eradication of malaria were rooted in Zionist philosophy.

    During the s, prior to the construction of the National Water Carrier, food was scarce in Israel and currency for its import was lacking. The additional 5, hectares of arable land in the Hula Valley proved to be highly beneficial to the economic development of the country. However, as the years went by, it became clear that the objectives of the draining project had been only partially fulfilled. The peat soils proved suitable for agriculture, but the anticipated exceptional yields were never obtained.

    The goal of eradication of malaria was actually achieved inirrespective of the draining project, as a by-product of the exodus of carriers of the malarial parasite.

    Nevertheless the project succeeded in removing 5, hectares of anopheles mosquito habitat thereby reducing the chances for re-introduction of the disease. The use of peat as fertilizer or for industry never materialized.

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