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    Historical Description Direct link to this description Newcastle is a borough and market town, and generally called Newcastle-upon-Tyne, from its situation on the northern bank of that river, which here becomes so deep that ships of a middling burthen may come safely up to the very town, though the large Colliery ships are stationed at Shields.

    It is so secure an haven that vessels are in no danger, either from storms or shallows, after having passed Tinmouth bar, where a sand bank lies across the mouth of the river not more than seven feet at low water; and there are about it dangerous rocks, called the Black Middens; but the Trinity House of Newcastle have erected two light-houses to direct the ships in the night, and to prevent any danger from the Middens.

    It was originally a strong castle; but, being taken by the Scots, during the Civil Wars, it received considerable damage, and only a small part of it now remains. The mouth of the river is defended by Tinmouth Castle, which is situated on a very high rock, inaccessible on the side next the sea. It is a strong fortress, and well mounted with cannon.

    The ancient name of this town is supposed to have been Moncester, or the city of the monks, from the number of religious houses formerly here, and which name it bore till the time of the Norman invasion, when it took the name of Newcastle, from a castle erected here by Robert, eldest son of William I.

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    At Pandon Gate, one of the turrets of that wall, as it is believed, still remains. It seems indeed different both in fashion and masonry from the rest, and to carry with it the marks of great antiquity. This town was begun to be fortified in the reign of Edward I. In the year this town was taken by David I. Newcastle, soon after the preaching of the gospel in Britain, was famous for its monasteries, hospitals, alms-houses, and churches; and in the reign of Henry VIII.

    There were six monasteries, viz. A back gate leading to it still retains the name, together with the garden, which is in a square valley, extending to a place called High-friar-chair.

    Besides other possessions, not now certainly known, they owned the pleasant village of Stellar, on the southern bank of the Tyne, in the bishopric of Durham; and it is believed that they had a very large property in Newcastle, consisting in houses and wastes.

    A plot of ground adjoining to the moor belonged to them, and is still called the Nun moor. The monastery and chapel in Gateshead is said to have been a cell to these nuns and paid an annual rent of two shillings. Their annual revenues at the Suppression, amounted to 36l. It was situated near the lane called High-friar-chair, opposite to the Ficket-tower. - Singles Online Dating Site - FREE

    At its dissolution in the yearit consisted of a warden, eight friars, and two novices. It appears from its remains to have been a very handsome structure. It consisted of a prior, and twelve brethren, dependent upon Tinmouth; and their revenues, at the general suppression, was valued at 2l. It was granted to the corporation of Newcastle, in consideration of their paying The priory is still preserved from dilapidations by several companies, who have their halls in it.

    The monastery of St. It was situated in the Manour-chase, formerly called Cowgate. It was a handsome edifice, adorned with, cloisters, and had a curious chapel. It was sometimes the residence of the Kings of England in the expeditions against the Scots, After the suppression of religious houses, it was for some time made use of by government for a magazine and a storehouse, and was called, by the townsmen the artillery-yard.

    Out of the ruins of this structure has since arose a work-house for the poor; a house of correction; a charity- school for the parish of All-saints, and a dwelling for the master, erected in the year The Carmelites, or White Friars, had also another monastery in this town, situated on the Wall- knowl, and founded, either by Laurentius de Acton, or Roger de Thornton; the latter, if not the founder, was certainly a great benefactor to it.

    From its being dedicated to St. Michael, and situated on an eminence, it was called St. Newcastle had also four hospitals, viz. The hospital of St. Mary Magdalen was founded by King Henry I. Fourteen persons within the house were each allowed a room, eight shillings a month, and coals. Fifteen without the house had a different allowance; some eight shillings, some five shillings, and some two shillings and sixpence a month. In the reign of Edward the Third, Laurentius de Acton had the first fruits of it, amounting annually to two hundred marks.

    John Bland, who was then master, paid him forty marks for his own right. Bland was a very considerable patron to this hospital; he built the consistory, and ornamented the chapel, where he was afterwards buried. It stood on the summit of a hill without Pilgrim-street, and was dissolved by Henry the Eighth, and incorporated with St. The hospital of the Virgin Mary is supposed to have been founded during the reign of Henry the Second, by a gentleman of the name of Aselack of Killingworth, who gave, by charter, the ground on which it was built, with other endowments, for the maintenance of two friars, and a chaplain, to serve God and the poor; here also the helpless stranger and indigent traveller found refreshment and repose.

    The inhabitants of Newcastle made an addition to this hospital, for supporting a master and a chaplain, to say divine service to six bede folk in the almshouse, for lodging poor and wayfaring people, and to give sepulture to such as died there; nine chaldron of coals were likewise distributed among them.

    It was abolished by Henry the Eighth; but in the ninth year of the reign of James the First, the corporation of Newcastle obtained a charter for it, and converted it into a grammar school, It is situated in. It stood on the Wall-Knowl, and was surrendered to Henry the Eighth, but the annual revenues are not mentioned. It was situated on the south side of the sand hill; and the chaplain, who presided over it, had the care of nine poor men, and four poor women.

    In the 34th year of the reign of Henry VI. The town of Newcastle contains four churches or chapels, viz. Nicholas, All Saints, St. Mary in that city, by King Henry I. The other three churches, though they are termed three distinct parishes, are dependent on St. Nicholas, the vicar receiving dues from them also.

    This church was founded in the year ; and in the yearin the reign of King Stephen, Hugh Pudsey, bishop of Durham, assigned to the minister of St. The situation of this church is very advantageous, being elevated, and almost in the centre of the town. Its length is 80 yards, its breadth 25, and its steeple 64 yards high. From the square tower, or main body of the steeple, there are two bold stone arches, supporting a large and beautiful one, on which rises a lofty spire.

    The interior of this church has within a few years been fitted up anew, in the manner of a cathedral, and is extremely neat. There are a a few very handsome monuments placed in it; and it had formerly nine chantries, in honour of St. John the Baptist and St.

    John the Evangelist; St. Thomas; the Blessed Virgin; St. Nicholas, it is situated at the Bridge end, and is dedicated to St. It has nothing striking either in its structure or ornaments. Public duty is performed in it on Sundays, and prayers are read on certain days in the week.

    Two chantries were founded in this chapel to the honour of St. Ann and the Virgin Mary. South Gosforth chapel, situated about two miles north from Newcastle, is also a chapel of ease to St. Nicholas; it is spoken of as early as the reign of Henry II. It has lately been rebuilt, and is a very neat structure.

    North Gosforth chapel, situated near the above, is in ruins; and little remains, except a few grave stones, in the chapel-yard. The front, which is towards the south, has a handsome colonnade of five columns of the Ionic order, supporting a fine portico. A lofty spire rises above the front, which contains a clock, and a good ring of bells.

    The old church stood a little eastward of the present one, which was consecrated in the yearand cost the parish 27, l. Seven chantries were founded in All-Saints church in honour of St. Mary the Blessed Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, St. John the Baptist, St. The interior is neatly fitted up.

    It had an organ, as early as the year ; but that being long since destroyed, a new one has been erected of late years, at the expence of the inhabitants. Three chantries were founded in this church, in honour of St. The celebrated Cunningham, the pastoral poet, was buried in this church-yard. On his monument is the following inscription: Here he the remains of John Cunningham. Of bis excellence As a pastoral Poet, His works will remain a monument for ages, After this tribute of esteem is in the dust forgotten.

    He died September 18,aged He culled the essence of simplicity, and arranged it in pastoral verse. Andrews church stands near Newgate, on the west side of the street. From the stile of its architecture, and its situation, where old Monkchester chiefly stood, it claims priority to the rest for antiquity. Inthe old bells were taken down, and six new ones put in their place by a contribution among the inhabitants, the corporation giving fifty pounds.

    At the west end is a handsome gallery, erected in the yearat the expence of the parish. After the reformation, it was neglected and fell into decay, but was repaired in the yearand has been since rebuilt by the corporation, after an elegant design. In the same suburbs was anciently another chapel, dedicated to St.

    Laurence, and said to have been built by one of the Earls of Northumberland. It was dependent upon the priory of St. John of Jerusalem; but in the reign of Edward VI. The dissenting meeting-houses in this town are numerous, there being in the whole six congregations of Presbyterians, properly so called, united in doctrine, discipline, and communion with the church of Scotland; one of Burgers, and two of Anti-burgers, seceding from that church; a body of Unitarians, a congregation of Independents, another of Calvinist Baptists, two called Kilhamites, two Romish chapels, a respectable body of Quakers, and a small meeting-house for the followers of Mr.

    There are five charity schools in this town, the principal of which is that belonging to the parish of St. Nicholas, which was founded by Mrs.

    Eleanor Allen, a widow lady of Newcastle, in the year To support this charity she assigned a farmhold and tenant right, in the parish of Walls, and held, under the dean and chapter of Durham, of above the annual value of sixty pounds, for the education of 40 boys and 20 girls of this parish and of the chapelry of St.
    Cymru, the nation; Cymry, the people; Cymraeg, the language Orientation Identification.

    The Britons, a Celtic tribe, who first settled in the area that is now Wales, had already begun to identify themselves as a distinct culture by the sixth century C.

    The word "Cymry," referring to the country, first appeared in a poem dating from The words "Wales" and "Welsh" are Saxon in origin and were used by the invading Germanic tribe to denote people who spoke a different language.

    The Welsh sense of identity has endured despite invasions, absorption into Great Britain, mass immigration, and, more recently, the arrival of non-Welsh residents. Language has played a significant role in contributing to the sense of unity felt by the Welsh; more than the other Celtic languages, Welsh has maintained a significant number of speakers.

    During the eighteenth century a literary and cultural rebirth of the language occurred which further helped to solidify national identity and create ethnic pride among the Welsh. Central to Welsh culture is the centuries-old folk tradition of poetry and music which has helped keep the Welsh language alive.

    Welsh intellectuals in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries wrote extensively on the subject of Welsh culture, promoting the language as the key to preserving national identity. Welsh literature, poetry, and music flourished in the nineteenth century as literacy rates and the availability of printed material increased.

    Tales that had traditionally been handed down orally were recorded, both in Welsh and English, and a new generation of Welsh writers emerged. Wales is a part of the United Kingdom and is located in a wide peninsula in the western portion of the island of Great Britain.

    The island of Anglesey is also considered a part of Wales and is separated from the mainland by the Menai Strait. Wales is surrounded by water on three sides: Wales covers an area of 8, square miles 20, square kilometers and extends miles kilometers from its most distant points and varies between 36 and 96 miles 58 and kilometers in width. The capital, Cardiff, is located in the southeast on the Severn Estuary and is also the most important seaport and shipbuilding center.

    Wales is very mountainous and has a rocky, irregular coastline with numerous bays, the largest of which is Cardigan Bay to the west. The Cambrian Mountains, the most significant range, run north-south through central Wales. Other mountain ranges include the Brecon Beacons to the southeast and Snowdon in the northwest, which reaches an elevation of 3, feet 1, meters and is the highest mountain in Wales and England. Numerous smaller rivers cover the south, including the Usk, Wye, Teifi, and Towy.

    The temperate climate, mild and moist, has ensured the development of an abundance of plant and animal life. Ferns, mosses, and grasslands as well as numerous wooded areas cover Wales.

    Oak, mountain ash, and coniferous trees are found in mountainous regions under 1, feet meters. The pine marten, a small animal similar to a mink, and the polecat, a member of the weasel family, are Wales found only in Wales and nowhere else in Great Britain.

    The latest surveys place the population of Wales at 2, with a density of approximately people per square mile per square kilometers. Almost three-quarters of the Welsh population reside in the mining centers of the south. The popularity of Wales as a vacation destination and weekend retreat, especially near the border with England, has created a new, nonpermanent population. There are approximatelyWelsh speakers today and, due to a renewed interest in the language and culture, this number may increase.

    Most people in Wales, however, are English-speaking, with Welsh as a second language; in the north and west, many people are Welsh and English bilinguals. English is still the main language of everyday use with both Welsh and English appearing on signs.

    In some areas, Welsh is used exclusively and the number of Welsh publications is increasing. Welsh, or Cymraeg, is a Celtic language belonging to the Brythonic group consisting of Breton, Welsh, and the extinct Cornish.

    Western Celtic tribes first settled in the area during the Iron Age, bringing with them their language which survived both Roman and Anglo-Saxon occupation and influence, although some features of Latin were introduced into the language and have survived in modern Welsh. Welsh epic poetry can be traced back to the sixth century C. The poems of Taliesin and Aneirin dating from the late seventh century C.

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    Although there were many factors affecting the Welsh language, especially contact with other language groups, the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries marked a dramatic decline in the number of Welsh speakers, as many non-Welsh people, attracted by the industry that had developed around coal mining in the south and east, moved into the area. At the same time, many Welsh people from rural areas left to find work in London or abroad. This large-scale migration of non-Welsh-speaking workers greatly accelerated the disappearance of Welsh-speaking communities.

    Even though there were still around forty Welsh-language publications in the mid-nineteenth century, the regular use of Welsh by the majority of the population began to drop. Over time two linguistic groups emerged in Wales; the Welsh-speaking region known as the Y Fro Cymraeg to the north and west, where more than 80 percent of the population speaks Welsh, and the Anglo-Welsh area to the south and east where the number of Welsh speakers is below 10 percent and English is the majority language.

    Up untilhowever, almost half the population still spoke Welsh. In the Welsh Language Act was passed, recognizing the status of Welsh as an official language.

    In the Welsh Language Board was established, helping to ensure the rebirth of Welsh. Throughout Wales there was a serious effort in the second half of the twentieth century to maintain and promote the language. Other efforts to support the language included Welsh-language television programs, bilingual Welsh-English schools, as well A procession heading to the National Eisteddfod Festival in Llandudno, Wales.

    The symbol of Wales, which also appears on the flag, is a red dragon. Supposedly brought to the colony of Britain by the Romans, the dragon was a popular symbol in the ancient world and was used by the Romans, the Saxons, and the Parthians. It became the national symbol of Wales when Henry VII, who became king in and had used it as his battle flag during the battle of Bosworth Field, decreed that the red dragon should become the official flag of Wales.

    The leek and the daffodil are also important Welsh symbols. One legend connects the leek to Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, who defeated the pagan Saxons in a victorious battle that supposedly occurred in a field of leeks.

    It is more likely that leeks were adopted as a national symbol because of their importance to the Welsh diet, particularly during Lent when meat was not allowed. Another, less famous Welsh symbol consists of three ostrich plumes and the motto "Ich Dien" translation: It was probably borrowed from the motto of the King of Bohemia, who led the cavalry charge against the English. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation.

    The earliest evidence of a human presence in Wales dates from the Paleolithic, or Old Stone Age, period almostyears ago. It was not until the Neolithic and Bronze Age period around 3, B. The first tribes to settle in Wales, who probably came from the western coastal areas of the Mediterranean, were people generally referred to as the Iberians.

    Later migrations from northern and eastern Europe brought the Brythonic Celts and Nordic tribes to the area. At the time of the Roman invasion in 55 B. The Cymry tribes were eventually subjugated by the Romans in the first century C. Anglo-Saxon tribes also settled in Britain during this period, pushing other Celtic tribes into the Welsh mountains where they eventually united with the Cymry already living there. In the first centuries C. All of the Welsh kingdoms later united against the Anglo-Saxon invaders, marking the beginning of an official division between England and Wales.

    This boundary became official with the construction of Offa's Dyke around the middle of the eighth century C. Offa's Dyke was at first a ditch constructed by Offa, the king of Mercia, in an attempt to give his territories a well-defined border to the west.

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    The Dyke was later enlarged and fortified, becoming one of the largest human-made boundaries in Europe and covering miles from the northeast coast to the southeast coast of Wales. It remains to this day the line that divides English and Welsh cultures. These areas were used as strong points in attacks against the Welsh and as strategic political centers. Nevertheless, the only Welsh kingdom to fall under Norman control during the reign of William I — was Gwent, in the southeast.

    By the Norman lords had expanded their control to include the Welsh areas of Cardigan, Pembroke, Brecon, and Glamorgan. This expansion into Welsh territory led to the establishment of the March of Wales, an area previously ruled by the Welsh kings. The Welsh continued to fight Norman and Anglo-Saxon control in the first part of the twelfth century.

    By the last half of the twelfth century the three Welsh kingdoms of Gwynedd, Powys, and Deheubarth were firmly established, providing a permanent base for Welsh statehood.

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    The principal settlements of Aberffraw in Gwynedd, Mathrafal in Powys, and Dinefwr in Deheubarth formed the core of Welsh political and cultural life. Although the Welsh kings were allies, each ruled separate territories swearing loyalty to the king of England. The establishment of the kingdoms marked the beginning of a period of stability and growth.

    Agriculture flourished, as did scholarship and the Welsh literary tradition. A period of unrest and contested succession followed the deaths of the three Welsh kings as different factions fought for control. The stability provided by the first kings was never restored in Powys and Deheubarth.

    The kingdom of Gwynedd was successfully united once again under the reign of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth d. Viewing Llywelyn as a threat, King John — led a campaign against him which led to Llywelyn's humiliating defeat in Llywelyn, however, turned this to his advantage and secured the allegiance of other Welsh leaders who feared total subjugation under King John. Llywelyn became the leader of the Welsh forces and, although conflict with King John continued, he successfully united the Welsh politically and eventually minimized the king of England's involvement in Welsh affairs.

    Dafydd ap Llywelyn, Llywelyn ap Iorwerth's son and heir, attempted to broaden Welsh power before his premature death in With Dafydd leaving no heirs, succession to the Welsh throne was contested by Dafydd's nephews and in a series of battles between and Llwelyn ap Gruffydd d.

    Henry III officially recognized his authority over Wales in with the Treaty of Montgomery and in turn Llwelyn swore allegiance to the English crown. Llwelyn succeeded in firmly establishing the Principality of Wales, which consisted of the twelfth century kingdoms of Gwynedd, Powys, and Deheubarth as well as some parts of the March.

    This period of peace, however, did not last long. Llwelyn was forced into a humiliating surrender that included relinquishing control over the eastern part of his territory and an acknowledgment of fealty paid to Edward I annually.

    In Llwelyn, aided this time by the Welsh nobility of other regions, rebelled against Edward I only to be killed in combat. The Welsh forces continued to fight but finally capitulated to Edward I in the summer ofmarking the beginning of a period of occupation by the English. Although the Welsh were forced to surrender, the struggle for unity and independence over the previous one hundred years had been crucial in shaping Welsh politics and identity. During the fourteenth century economic and social difficulties prevailed in Wales.

    Edward I embarked on a program of castle building, both for defensive purposes and to shelter English colonists, which was continued by his heir Edward II. The result of his efforts can still be seen in Wales today, which has more castles per square mile than any other area of Europe. Under the leadership of Owain Glyndwr, Wales united to rebel against the English king. From to Wales once again asserted its independence from England.

    England did not regain control of Wales again until and the death of Glyndwr, marking the last Welsh uprising. The Welsh submitted to Henry VII —the first king of the house of Tudor, whom they regarded as a countryman.
    Tweet Below is a list and description of the most recent genealogy records for England and Wales see list of most recent records for other countries.

    Many of these records can be searched using our free Genealogy Search Engine. It is packed with useful information for anyone tracing their English ancestors. Included with this release are the national directory which covers the entire country and the South Wales directory. Previously, TheGenealogist had also released the national directory. In the early days of the telephone, the only people who could afford them tended to be wealthy individuals, doctors and merchants who needed them for their business.

    However, by the time of the release of the South Wales directory, telephone use had spread to some middle class households. Access to this collection is by subscription. Please note when looking at old telephone directories such as this that the region listed in bold as part of each listing is the telephone exchange region, which is similar to but not necessarily the same as the town or district region.

    Some of the latest additions include 6, birth records from Radcliffe to 5, burial records from Elton to and 4, birth records for Trafford. In total, the website has 9. These are records of both prisoners and prison officers. The 13, records in this collection span the years from to The records come from a variety of sources including prisoner registers, calendars of prisoners and registers of prison officers.

    For prisoners, the records usually list the name of the prisoner, details on their offense, their sentence and a physical description of the prisoner.

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    For prison officers, it usually lists the name of the officer, rank, where they worked and their salary. If you know of new online genealogy records that we may have missed then please send us an email at letusknow genealogyintime. Please include a link to the new records in your email. May Lancashire — FamilySearch.

    Oldham is now part of greater Manchester and this collection covers the following cemeteries: In total, there are somerecords in this collection, which spans the years from to A typical record lists the name of the deceased, age, date and place where death occurred, date and place of burial and the grave number. The records can be searched by first name and last name. Oldham Council also maintains a website of cemetery and crematorium records, which can be accessed here.

    Westminster — FindMyPast has put online new marriage and burial records from Westminster. In total somenew marriage records andburial records have been added this month. The burial records can be searched by first name, last name, burial year and burial place.

    Access is by subscription. This was the largest naval battle of World War I. It occurred in the North Sea on 31 May and 1 June The battle involved roughly ships andmen from both the British and German sides. Britain lost over 6, men in the battle. There are various different types of records in this collection. The original document is also included with most records.

    The records can be searched by first name, last name, year of birth and service number. Included in this update are baptism, marriage and burial records. The website now contains someDorset baptism records, somemarriage records and someburial records. The latest update includes more articles from some of the larger cities, such as the Birmingham Daily Gazette, the Sheffield Independent and the Newcastle Evening Chronicle.

    The newspapers can be searched by first name, last name and keyword. In addition, it is possible to filter the search results by newspaper title and date range. This collection of somerecords spans the years from to The information contained in each record varies depending on the time period, but in general includes such information as the full name, years of service, year joined the navy, service number, home parish, date of death, name of next of kin and pension details.

    These records can be searched by first name, last name. These are primarily baptism, marriage and burial records. This brings their collection of Essex parish records to some 2.

    The records span the years from to After 21 years, the website is working towards improving the user experience with new stylized pages making it easier for users to find their ancestors. Details can be found on the Genuki news page. March National — FindMyPast has added an additionalrecords to their collection of national school admission registers. The records come from multiple archives covering various parts of the country.

    This collection spans the years from to and contains such things as school admission records, log books which usually record attendanceschool visitor lists and other lists associated with the daily activities of a school. These records can be very valuable in providing useful background information beyond the school record, of course.

    This collection can be searched by first name, last name, year, town and school name. In total, these records will encompass seven cemeteries. The records go back as far as These are British military personnel held in German prisoner of war camps from to The records provide such information as name, service number and regiment.

    The two new cemeteries are Stapenhill and Rolleston.

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    The records date from to February National — FamilySearch. The data was provided by FindMyPast as part of the data exchange agreement between the two entities. It is not clear what percentage of the records from this census has gone online at FamilySearch. It was taken on 7 April Please note that records from this census are missing from the following regions: Only people who were home on the night of this census are listed in the forms.

    So if you had a relative that was in the navy, merchant marine, army or had any job that required them to travel or work in the evening then they may not be listed in this census.

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    These records can be searched by first name, last name, gender, place and relationship to the head of the household.

    This provides a complement to performing name searches for those who may have trouble finding their ancestors but know roughly where they lived. Just a reminder that the Register is now included with the month subscription package at FindMyPast. Apparently, this is an eclectic mix of documents from parish chests of Plymouth and West Devon.

    This includes such things as the levying of taxes, the selection of juries and even pew rentals within a given church. Just to be clear, these are not baptism, marriage or burial records. At one time, Anglican churches in England performed many duties that today would be associated with the government such as collecting taxes for the crown, maintaining local roads, etc.

    The records were usually kept in a locked chest at the local parish church, thus the name parish chest records. There are aboutrecords in this collection. Each record includes a transcript and an image of the original parish record.

    The latest addition includes 26 brand new titles, of which 19 are from Wales. If you are looking for a particular newspaper, use the By Newspaper filter to bring up all the titles. Alternatively, you can search by place and county.

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    These records are essentially index cards that the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen used between the two wars to track merchant seamen who served on British merchant vessels. The typical record lists the name, year of birth, place of birth and rank of the seaman. Sometimes additional information is given, such as a physical description and address of next of kin.

    Some even contain the signature of the seaman. The records can be searched by first name, last name, year of birth and birth country. In total, there are 1. The records seem to go back as far as years ago. Each record consists of a transcript plus an image of the original record. The records can be searched by first name, last name, date range and parish. Bad news - FindMyPast is also increasing the price of new month subscriptions soon 30th January.

    The latest update includesnew birth and baptism records to, new marriage records to andnew burial records to This will help you determine the correct parish for your ancestors. This is an important consideration when searching for historic parish records, especially since parish boundaries sometimes changed over time. The schedules linked to the parish maps provide further detail of each parish, such as land use in the region.

    Some maps even reveal individual buildings, houses, fields, rivers, streams, woods, etc. This can be invaluable when you want to narrow down your research to the last mile. Access to TheGenealogist is by subscription.

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    These are baptisms, banns, marriages and burial records that cover many of the parishes in Norfolk. The link provides access to the complete list of parishes and dates that are covered by this release. These registers span the years from to and consist of parish and parliamentary electoral rolls, electoral registers and lists of county voters.
    Geography of Wales Ancient land cover of southern Britain.

    Much of the landscape is mountainous with treeless moors and heathand having large areas with peat deposits. The present climate is wet and maritimewith warm summers and mild winters, [3] much like the later medieval climate, though there was a significant change to cooler and much wetter conditions in the early part of the era.

    There are deposits of gold, copper, lead, silver and zinc, and these have been exploited since the Iron Ageespecially so in the Roman era. There were many species of birds, fish and shellfish. The early medieval human population has always been considered relatively low in comparison to Englandbut efforts to reliably quantify it have yet to provide widely acceptable results. However, specifying the ancient usage of land is problematic in that there is little surviving evidence on which to base the estimates.

    Forest clearance has taken place since the Iron Age, and it is not known how the ancient people of Wales determined the best use of the land for their particular circumstances, [8] such as in their preference for wheat, oats, rye or barley depending on rainfall, growing season, temperature and the characteristics of the land on which they lived.

    Anglesey is the exception, historically producing more grain than any other part of Wales. Oxen were kept for ploughing, asses for beasts of burden and horses for human transport.

    Instead open land was used for feeding, and seasonal transhumance was practiced. In addition, bees were kept for the production of honey. Different degrees of blood relationship were important for different circumstances, all based upon the cenedl kindred.

    The nuclear family parents and children was especially important, while the pencenedl head of the family within four patrilinear generations held special status, representing the family in transactions and having certain unique privileges under the law.

    Under extraordinary circumstances the genealogical interest could be stretched quite far: Thus there was Gwenhwys " Gwent " with a group-identifying suffix and gwyr Guenti "men of Gwent" and Broceniauc "men of Brycheiniog ". Welsh custom contrasted with many Irish and Anglo-Saxon contexts, where the territory was named for the people living there Connaught for the Connachta, Essex for the East Saxons.

    This is aside from the origin of a territory's name, such as in the custom of attributing it to an eponymous founder Glywysing for Glywys, Ceredigion for Ceredig. The Latin equivalent seems to be regnum, which referred to the "changeable, expandable, contractable sphere of any ruler's power". Throughout the Middle Ages the Welsh used a variety of words for rulers, with the specific words used varying over time, and with literary sources generally using different terms than annalistic ones.

    Latin language texts used Latin language terms while vernacular texts used Welsh terms.

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    Not only did the specific terms vary, the meaning of those specific terms varied over time as well. The earlier, original meaning of brenin was simply a person of status.

    Clerical sources stressed obligations such as respect for Christian principles, providing defence and protection, pursuing thieves and imprisoning offenders, persecuting evildoers, and making judgements.

    Kings made war and gave judgements in consultation with local elders [30] but they did not govern in any sense of that word. The relationships among the king and the members of his warband were personal, and the practice of fosterage strengthened those personal bonds. They are differentiated legally by having a higher sarhaed the penalty for insult than the general populace, by the records of their transactions such as land transfers [36] by their participation in local judgements and administration, [37] and by their consultative role in judgements made by the king.

    A man's privilege was assessed in terms of his braint statusof which there were two kinds birth and officeand in terms of his superior's importance. Two men might each be an uchelwr high manbut a king is higher than a breyr a regional leaderso legal compensation for the loss to a king's bondsman aillt was higher than the equivalent loss to the bondsman of a breyr. Early sources stressed birth and function as the determinators of nobility, and not by the factor of wealth that later became associated with an aristocracy.

    Nor can the person be considered a vassal except perhaps as a clerical self-description, as in the 'vassal of a saint'. The early existence of the concept suggests a stratum of bound dependents in the post-Roman era.

    Slaves might form part of the payment in a transaction made between those of higher rank. It was possible for them to buy their freedom, and an example of manumission at Llandeilo Fawr is given in a ninth-century marginalia note of the Lichfield Gospels.

    There were three major orders consisting of bishops episcopipriests presbyteri and deacons, as well as several minor ones. Bishops had some temporal authority, but not necessarily in the sense of a full diocese. The Church seemed episcopally dominated and largely consisting of monasteries. The size of the religious communities is unknown Bede and the Welsh Triads suggest they were large, the Lives of the Saints suggest they were small, but these are not considered credible sources on the matter.

    From the seventh century onward there are few references to monks but more frequent references to 'disciples'. These long cyst burials occur in the southern Scottish lowlands, Wales, and the West Country of England. The grave is lined with stones, there are no grave goods, they often have an east-west orientation, and they date from a time before churches were commonly attached to cemeteries.

    They contrast with Anglo-Saxon burials, which followed a different inhumation custom. Landed proprietorship was the basis of support and income for all clerical communities, exploiting agriculture cropsherding sheep, pigs, goatsinfrastructure barns, threshing floorsand employing stewards to supervise the labour.

    Lands that were not adjacent to the communities provided income in the form of in effect a business of landlordship. They had the power of nawdd protection, as from legal process and were noddfa a "nawdd place" or sanctuary.

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