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    I also arrived in Poland fully expecting to pen one or more Broke Student Guides, and you will not be disappointed. High hopes, high hopes, you guys. To and fro the airport, you can take a cab or uber. Our taxi ride from the city center to the airport cost us 32Zlt with a 20Zlt surcharge because we requested a big cab lots of luggage.

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    Even cheaper if you dont have a ton of luggage like us! It only took ten minutes, even thought google maps said half an hour. Stranger things have happened, but it was a nice surprise regardless. Oh yes — one more thing. You do not need a visa to go to Poland, you can stay for up to 90 days as a tourist.

    It was mad cheap too. It was 7zlt 2. For reference, in Germany the month before I paid freaking 25 euros for a lousy 2. Poland uses their own currency, the zloty. The exchange rate is about 2. Whenever I write Broke Student Guides, I always get at least one person emailing me asking me how much money they should bring.

    The answer is, how should I know? A shopaholic would spend way more than I do because I dont care much for shopping. I can only tell you what I did: I changed Eur to Zloty for 2 weeks in poland, then paid for everything else using my credit card.

    I did just fine. It was pretty sweet though, it was the Sheraton warsaw But I ran searches on alternative accommodation options — and there are plenty of hostels and airbnbs for really good prices considering youre in europe.

    I actually extended my trip and spent an additional night in Warsaw Hostel Centrum, which I thought was pretty great because it was near the main railway station, had free wifi, had a 24 hour check in desk, and offered free luggage storage on the day of check out till 11pm.

    I found the hostel on hostelworld. Ubers are very affordable, I dont think I paid more than zloty for my rides.

    Also, check out the prices: This means that if you can get from one station to another in 20 minutes, your ride is free! The trigger word of broke students all over the world! I actually love biking around cities, when I was in Vienna last month I cycled everywhere and it was awesome. The way Warsaw is structured, most things just sit on this one really long route called the Royal Road. So if you walk down the entirety of the road you would have hit a whole bunch of things that you might wanna see.

    I think there is no visiting Poland without being minimally aware of its history. Poland is its history. Neon Museum the neon muzeum Warsaw is split by a river, and on the other end of the river you have the Praga-Soho district. We were there for lunch, and while waiting for our reservation time we popped into the Neon Museum, which I really recommend.

    Neon signs are a relic from the Cold War era, a socio-cultural symbol of economic success in a post-Stalin time. Basically, Poland wanted to compete with other metropolitan cities from the West like London and New York, but still wanted to differentiate themselves from capitalist cultures and modes of advertising — birthing the era of neonization, which was unique to Poland at the time.

    Most of these signs were commissioned by the communist government that was then in power, and the signs were seen as a kind of socialist advertising apparently the look of neon signs relayed dependability and trust? This, combined with the fact that Poland has historically had a strong emphasis on graphic design, resulted in some of the most unique and gorgeous neon signs in history.

    Unfortunately, neon is really mad expensive to maintain, so a lot of the signs fell into disuse and got tossed out after the fall of the eastern bloc. This museum is a privately owned passion project that is one of, if not the only, remaining places where you can see multiple signs all in one place.

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    It has also become synonymous with any mention of the neon era in Poland, and the museum is super beloved by locals and tourists alike. If you have the time or opportunity to, talk to the owners and ask them questions!

    He walked us around the museum while she tended the ticket booth, and it was evident just how much of a passion project this museum was from the loving way he spoke of each sign. David Hill, co-founder of the museum, explaining the origins of a sign to us.

    I did not do this because I was with a tour guide as arranged by the Polish tourism board I was on a press tripbut I checked, and there is a free walking tour available in Warsaw. History of Jews in Poland Museum This museum is now one of my favorite museums in the world.

    I visited it on tour with the press group, and returned by myself the week after because I wanted more time to go through each section. As per the name, the museum focuses on the history of the Jews in Poland, from their settlement to the Holocaust, and it extends also into post-war territory exploring the emotional trauma and identity crisis of the Jews after the war.

    Like I mentioned in my opening, any meaningful engagement with Poland must necessarily consist an understanding or at least, some interest, in the history of the country. How do we even make sense of what came to past? And so experience it in Poland you must. The museum contextualises the experiences of the war in an impressively nuanced and thorough way.

    It explores the trauma of Auschwitz, yes, but also expands past that, so that you leave the museum seeing the Jewish Poles as more than just their trauma — something that I think is crucial when discussing any sort of trauma in relation to identity today. There is no randomness in the way the exhibits are sequenced, and yet, walking through the museum, the flow from era to era feels natural and totally absorbing.

    I spent about hours in the museum each time, and I hear it spans about 5km underground. Once again, it literally pays to be young.

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    One actually walked right up to me and scared me. And even if youre not there on a Sunday, you can visit the Chopin monument and check out the music benches, which are dotted all over the city. They look pretty much like regular benches, except they have some chopin-related fun facts inscribed on them, plus a little button that triggers classical chopin music to play from speakers located within the bench.

    Vodka Museum It was a fortuitous coincidence that we were in town on the day their Vodka museum opened! Or anyone interested in breweries, distilleries, that kinda thing. Me n all the vodka English tours go by the hour. Unfortunately, the cert is in Polish, so I have no idea what it actually said.

    Polish Vodka Museum http: It was an uprising orchestrated by the Poles in an effort to overthrow the Germa occupation, a heroic effort, but a doomed one nonetheless. Of course, if you have the time, visit both!

    The view from the clock tower is pretty fantastic as well, apparently the best view in all of Warsaw. PLN 6 — Concessions: I feel like I could go on for way longer, but this post is already pretty lengthy as it is, and I do feel like the beauty of travel is also in the moments of spontaneous discovery upon arrival. It makes the country more personal to me, somehow. My recommended reads for Poland: Man, modern history is so great.

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    And for the rest of you, hope this was helpful in your trip planning!
    Description[ edit ] Comparison of A. Its forelimbs were slightly shorter than its hindlimbs. In this was measured to be The jaws are lined with spatulate chisel-like teeth suited to an herbivorous diet.

    A phylogenetic analysis found that the braincase had a morphology similar to those of other diplodocoids. Those teeth that have the enamel surface exposed do not show any scratches on the surface; instead, they display a sugary texture and little wear. The caudal vertebra number may vary, even within species. The dorsal ribs are not fused or tightly attached to their vertebrae and are instead loosely articulated. Apatosaurus, like its close relative Supersaurushas tall neural spines, which make up more than half the height of the individual bones of its vertebrae.

    The shape of the tail is unusual for a diplodocid; it is comparatively slender because of the rapidly decreasing height of the vertebral spines with increasing distance from the hips. Apatosaurus also had very long ribs compared to most other diplodocids, giving it an unusually deep chest. The arm bones are stout, so the humerus of Apatosaurus resembles that of Camarasaurus, as well as Brontosaurus.

    However, the humeri of Brontosaurus and A. In Charles Gilmore noted that previous reconstructions of Apatosaurus forelimbs erroneously proposed that the radius and ulna could cross; in life they would have remained parallel. The phalangeal formula ismeaning the innermost finger phalanx on the forelimb has two bones and the next has one. The pelvic girdle includes the robust iliaand the fused co-ossified pubes and ischia. The femora of Apatosaurus are very stout and represent some of the most robust femora of any member of Sauropoda.

    The tibia and fibula bones are different from the slender bones of Diplodocus but are nearly indistinguishable from those of Camarasaurus. The fibula is longer and slenderer than the tibia. The foot of Apatosaurus has three claws on the innermost digits; the digit formula is The first metatarsal is the stoutest, a feature shared among diplodocids. Marsh gave it this name based on the chevron bones, which are dissimilar to those of other dinosaurs; instead, the chevron bones of Apatosaurus showed similarities with those of mosasaurs.

    Two years later, Marsh announced the discovery of a larger and more complete specimen at Como BluffWyoming. He gave this specimen a new name based on the conventions of his age and the relatively sparse fossil record available at that time.

    It was later recognised that the features he had used to distinguish genera and species were in fact more widespread among sauropods. In addition, a sculpted model of what the museum thought the skull of this massive creature might look like was made.

    The mount construction was overseen by Adam Hermann, who failed to find Apatosaurus skulls. Hermann was forced to sculpt a stand-in skull by hand. Osborn said in a publication that the skull was "largely conjectural and based on that of Morosaurus" now Camarasaurus. Riggs thought that the deposits were similar in age to those of the Como Bluff in Wyoming from which Marsh had described Brontosaurus.

    Most of the skeleton was found, and after comparison with both Brontosaurus and Apatosaurus ajax, Riggs realized that the holotype of A. Since Apatosaurus was the earlier name, Brontosaurus should be considered a junior synonym of Apatosaurus. Because of this, Riggs recombined Brontosaurus excelsus as Apatosaurus excelsus. Based on comparisons with other species proposed to belong to Apatosaurus, Riggs also determined that the Field Columbian Museum specimen was likely most similar to A.

    Holland defended his view in in an address to the Paleontological Society of America, yet he left the Carnegie Museum mount headless. While some thought Holland was attempting to avoid conflict with Osborn, others suspected Holland was waiting until an articulated skull and neck were found to confirm the association of the skull and skeleton.

    They found that though he never published his opinion, Holland was almost certainly correct, that Apatosaurus had a Diplodocus-like skull. According to them, many skulls long thought to pertain to Diplodocus might instead be those of Apatosaurus.

    They reassigned multiple skulls to Apatosaurus based on associated and closely associated vertebrae. Even though they supported Holland, it was noted that Apatosaurus might have possessed a Camarasaurus-like skull, based on a disarticulated Camarasaurus-like tooth found at the precise site where an Apatosaurus specimen was found years before. The specimen was found in Cactus Park Quarry in western Colorado. According to the rules of the ICZN which governs the scientific names of animalsthe name Apatosaurus, having been published first, has priority as the official name; Brontosaurus was considered a junior synonym and was therefore long discarded from formal use.

    The minimum number for generic separation was chosen based on the fact that A. Thus, thirteen characters were chosen to validate the separation of genera. The six differing features for specific separation were chosen by counting the number of differing features in separate specimens generally agreed to represent one species, with only one differing character in D.

    The conclusion was based on a comparison of morphological characteristics across 81 different dinosaur individuals. Other species previously assigned to Apatosaurus, such as Elosaurus parvus and Eobrontosaurus yahnahpin were also reclassified as Brontosaurus.

    Some features proposed to separate Brontosaurus from Apatosaurus include: Marsh named as many species as he could, which resulted in many being based upon fragmentary and indistinguishable remains. In Paul Upchurch and colleagues published a study that analyzed the species and specimen relationships of Apatosaurus. They found that A. The species is less studied than Brontosaurus and A. In many specimens in addition to the holotype were found assignable to A. The specimens date from the late Kimmeridgian to the early Tithonian ages.

    The former two consist of a vertebral column; the latter two consist of a skull and a nearly complete skeleton, respectively. Apatosaurus louisae specimens all come from the late Kimmeridgian of Dinosaur National Monument. The authors analyzed most diplodocid type specimens separately to deduce which specimen belonged to which species and genus.
    Western Africa It is the smallest of all living crocodiles. It belongs to its own monotypic genus ; however, new studies indicate there might be two or even three distinct species.

    Lives in the tropical forests of Western Africa. Feeds on small vertebrates and large aquatic invertebrates. It is a fairly terrestrial species and exhibits terrestrial hunting, especially at night. This species is classified as Vulnerable. For information on Tomistoma or false gharial, that is recently not considered as a true crocodile, see False gharial. Characteristics Crocodiles are similar to alligators and caimans; for their common characteristics and differences among them, see Crocodilia.

    Crocodiles, like dinosaurs, have the abdominal ribs modified into gastralia. Its external morphology is a sign of its aquatic and predatory lifestyle. Its streamlined body enables it to swim swiftly; it also tucks its feet to the side while swimming, making it faster by decreasing water resistance. Crocodiles have webbed feet which, though not used to propel them through the water, allow them to make fast turns and sudden moves in the water or initiate swimming.

    Webbed feet are an advantage in shallower water where the animals sometimes move around by walking. Crocodiles have a palatal flap, a rigid tissue at the back of the mouth that blocks the entry of water. The palate has a special path from the nostril to the glottis that bypasses the mouth.

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    The nostrils are closed during submergence. Like other archosaurscrocodilians are diapsidalthough their post-temporal fenestrae are reduced. The walls of the braincase are bony but lack supratemporal and postfrontal bones. The armoured skin has scales and is thick and rugged, providing some protection. They are still able to absorb heat through this armour, as a network of small capillaries allows blood through the scales to absorb heat.

    Crocodilian scales have pores believed to be sensory in function, analogous to the lateral line in fishes. They are particularly seen on their upper and lower jaws.

    Another possibility is that they are secretory, as they produce an oily substance which appears to flush mud off. Species of Osteolaemus grow to an adult size of just 1. Crocodilians show pronounced sexual dimorphismwith males growing much larger and more rapidly than females.

    The largest species of crocodile is the saltwater crocodile, found in eastern India, northern Australia, throughout South-east Asiaand in the surrounding waters. The largest crocodile ever held in captivity is an estuarine—Siamese hybrid named Yai Thai: Crocodilians are more closely related to birds and dinosaurs than to most animals classified as reptiles, the three families being included in the group Archosauria 'ruling reptiles'.

    Despite their prehistoric look, crocodiles are among the more biologically complex reptiles. Unlike other reptiles, a crocodile has a cerebral cortex and a four-chambered heart. Crocodilians also have the functional equivalent of a diaphragm by incorporating muscles used for aquatic locomotion into respiration. Salt glands are dysfunctional in Alligatoridae. Crocodiles do not have sweat glands and release heat through their mouths.

    They often sleep with their mouths open and may pant like a dog. The eyes, ears and nostrils are located on top of the head, allowing the crocodile to lie low in the water, almost totally submerged and hidden from prey.

    Vision Crocodiles have very good night vision, and are mostly nocturnal hunters. They use the disadvantage of most prey animals' poor nocturnal vision to their advantage. One explanation for the evolution of slit pupils is that they exclude light more effectively than a circular pupil, helping to protect the eyes during daylight. In addition to the protection of the upper and lower eyelids, crocodiles have a nictitating membrane sometimes called a "third eye-lid" that can be drawn over the eye from the inner corner while the lids are open.

    The eyeball surface is thus protected under the water while a certain degree of vision is still possible. It is possible that crocodiles use olfaction in the egg prior to hatching. Crocodiles have only one olfactory chamber and the vomeronasal organ is absent in the adults [37] indicating all olfactory perception is limited to the olfactory system.

    Behavioural and olfactometer experiments indicate that crocodiles detect both air-borne and water-soluble chemicals and use their olfactory system for hunting.

    When above water, crocodiles enhance their ability to detect volatile odorants by gular pumping, a rhythmic movement of the floor of the pharynx. Underwater food detection is presumably gustatory and tactile. The upper and lower jaws are covered with sensory pits, visible as small, black speckles on the skin, the crocodilian version of the lateral line organs seen in fish and many amphibians, though arising from a completely different origin.

    These pigmented nodules encase bundles of nerve fibers innervated beneath by branches of the trigeminal nerve. They respond to the slightest disturbance in surface water, detecting vibrations and small pressure changes as small as a single drop. These sense organs are known as domed pressure receptors DPRs. While alligators and caimans have DPRs only on their jaws, crocodiles have similar organs on almost every scale on their bodies. The function of the DPRs on the jaws is clear; to catch prey, but it is still not clear what the function is of the organs on the rest of the body.

    The receptors flatten when exposed to increased osmotic pressure, such as that experienced when swimming in sea water hyperosmotic to the body fluids. When contact between the integument and the surrounding sea water solution is blocked, crocodiles are found to lose their ability to discriminate salinities. Crocodiles mostly eat fishamphibianscrustaceansmolluscsbirdsreptilesand mammalsand they occasionally cannibalize smaller crocodiles.

    What a crocodile eats varies greatly with species, size and age. From the mostly fish-eating species, like the slender-snouted and freshwater crocodilesto the larger species like the Nile crocodile and the saltwater crocodile that prey on large mammals, such as buffalodeer and wild boardiet shows great diversity.

    Diet is also greatly affected by the size and age of the individual within the same species. All young crocodiles hunt mostly invertebrates and small fishgradually moving on to larger prey. Being ectothermic cold-blooded predators, they have a very slow metabolismso they can survive long periods without food. Despite their appearance of being slow, crocodiles have a very fast strike and are top predators in their environment, and various species have been observed attacking and killing other predators such as sharks and big cats.

    They can easily digest bones, hooves and horns. The BBC TV [52] reported that a Nile crocodile that has lurked a long time underwater to catch prey builds up a large oxygen debt. When it has caught and eaten that prey, it closes its right aortic arch and uses its left aortic arch to flush blood loaded with carbon dioxide from its muscles directly to its stomach; the resulting excess acidity in its blood supply makes it much easier for the stomach lining to secrete more stomach acid to quickly dissolve bulks of swallowed prey flesh and bone.

    Many large crocodilians swallow stones called gastroliths or stomach stoneswhich may act as ballast to balance their bodies or assist in crushing food, [20] similar to grit ingested by birds.

    Herodotus claimed that Nile crocodiles had a symbiotic relationship with certain birds, such as the Egyptian ploverwhich enter the crocodile's mouth and pick leeches feeding on the crocodile's blood; with no evidence of this interaction actually occurring in any crocodile species, it is most likely mythical or allegorical fiction.

    Since they feed by grabbing and holding onto their prey, they have evolved sharp teeth for piercing and holding onto flesh, and powerful muscles to close the jaws and hold them shut. The teeth are not well-suited to tearing flesh off of large prey items as are the dentition and claws of many mammalian carnivores, the hooked bills and talons of raptorial birdsor the serrated teeth of sharks.

    However, this is an advantage rather than a disadvantage to the crocodile since the properties of the teeth allow it to hold onto prey with the least possibility of the prey animal to escape. Otherwise combined with the exceptionally high bite forcethe flesh would easily cut through; thus creating an escape opportunity for the prey item.

    The jaws can bite down with immense force, by far the strongest bite of any animal. Ericksonalso shed light to the larger, extinct species of crocodilians. Since crocodile anatomy has changed only slightly for the last 80 million years, current data on modern crocodilians can be used to estimate the bite force of extinct species.

    The space for the jaw muscle in the skull is very large, which is easily visible from the outside as a bulge at each side. The nature of the muscle is so stiff, it is almost as hard as bone to touch, as if it were the continuum of the skull. Another trait is that most of the muscle in a crocodile's jaw is arranged for clamping down.

    Despite the strong muscles to close the jaw, crocodiles have extremely small and weak muscles to open the jaw. Crocodiles can thus be subdued for study or transport by taping their jaws or holding their jaws shut with large rubber bands cut from automobile inner tubes.

    Locomotion A crocodile, in a farm, gaping to thermoregulate Crocodiles can move quickly over short distances, even out of water. Some species can gallop, including Cuban crocodiles, Johnston's crocodiles, New Guinea crocodiles, African dwarf crocodilesand even small Nile crocodiles. The fastest means by which most species can move is a "belly run", in which the body moves in a snake-like sinusoidal fashion, limbs splayed out to either side paddling away frantically while the tail whips to and fro.

    When a crocodile walks quickly, it holds its legs in a straighter and more upright position under its body, which is called the "high walk". The most common method is to measure lamellar growth rings in bones and teeth—each ring corresponds to a change in growth rate which typically occurs once a year between dry and wet seasons.

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    The oldest crocodiles appear to be the largest species. A male crocodile lived to an estimated age of — years in a Russian zoo in Yekaterinburg. Named Henry, the crocodile is said to have lived in Botswana along the Okavango Riveraccording to centre director Martin Rodrigues. Crocodiles are the most social of reptiles.

    Even though they do not form social groups, many species congregate in certain sections of riverstolerating each other at times of feeding and basking. Most species are not highly territorial, with the exception of the saltwater crocodile, which is a highly territorial and aggressive species. A mature male will not tolerate any other males at any time of the year. Most other species are more flexible. There is a certain form of hierarchy in crocodiles: A good example of the hierarchy in crocodiles would be the case of the Nile crocodile.

    This species clearly displays all of these behaviours. Studies in this area are not thorough, however, and many species are yet to be studied in greater detail. However, males of all species are aggressive towards each other during mating season, to gain access to females.

    Crocodiles are also the most vocal of all reptiles, producing a wide variety of sounds during various situations and conditions, depending on species, age, size and sex.

    Depending on the context, some species can communicate over 20 different messages through vocalizations alone. Therefore most conspecific vocalization is made during the breeding seasonwith the exception being year-round territorial behaviour in some species and quarrels during feeding.

    Crocodiles also produce different distress calls and in aggressive displays to their own kind and other animals; notably other predators during interspecific predatory confrontations over carcasses and terrestrial kills.

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