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    Only the major subgroups of rocks are shown, each of which is made up of many separate layers of varying composition. The harder layers form the hills, and the softer layers the valleys. This forms the scarp in the north, from which the Witwatersrand derives its name. The granite to the north of the Orange Grove Quartzite scarp is around 3.

    To place this diagram into its broader context, see the diagrammatic geological cross section through the Vredefort crater at the end of the article below. The Witwatersrand plateau consists of a tometre-thick 3.

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    The oldest rocks laid down 2. Gold is found in the conglomerate strata of the younger members of the Supergroup, locally referred to as banket. The abundance of this gold is without equal anywhere else in the world. Over tonnes short tons have been mined from these rocks since this precious metal was first discovered here in An ashtray carved out of a soft form of banded ironstone.

    Note the alternating red and white layers that make up this rock. The red layers were laid down during the daylight hours when Archaean photosynthesizing cyanobacteria produced oxygen that immediately reacted with the dissolved iron in the water, to form insoluble iron oxide rust. The white layers are sediments that settled during the night when there was no oxygen in the water. The fast flowing rivers cascading down the mountains to the north now flowed over a wide flat coastal plain to form broad deltas of sluggish braided rivers, where the heavy materials cobbles, gold, uranium and iron pyrite etc.

    Today's gold ore is confined to the fossil river deltas. The position of the Kaapvaal Craton khaki coloured area beneath the South African landscape, and the shrunken, shallow Witwatersrand Sea light blue at the time that gold was deposited in the broad, river deltas of six rivers that flowed into that sea, depositing all their heavier materials cobbles, gold, uranium iron pyrite etc. Most of these gold deposits are deep under the South African surface, but form outcrops exposures at the surface along the length of the Witwatersrand ridge.

    The six gold fields thus established are, in order from the west, moving clockwise, to the northern shore of the Witwatersrand sea, WelkomKlerksdorpCarletonvilleWest RandEast Rand and Evander. Its size and position relative to Southern Africa today is indicated in the diagram on the left.

    Sandy sediments brought in by rivers from the north started being deposited on the granite about 2. This sandy layer eventually became compressed to form the Orange Grove Quartzite, the lowermost layer of the Witwatersrand Supergroup.

    This quartzite formation forms the scarp from which the Witwatersrand derives its name see above. As the sea deepened finer grained and muddy sediments accumulated. At night these reactions stopped. The result was alternating red and gray layers of mud which, when consolidated, became banded ironstones. Tillite deposits, dating from 2. The area of the craton on top of which Johannesburg is now situated, became a vast riverine plain, which extended along the entire northern and western shoreline of the shrunken sea.

    The rivers formed braided deltas with many interlacing, slow flowing channels where all the heavy materials brought down from the mountains were deposited: The gold was in its elemental metal form. Cyanobacteria grew in relative abundance in these mineral rich waters. The graph also indicates the period during which banded ironstone formations were formed on earth, indicative of an oxygen-free atmosphere.

    One of the first microcontinents to form was the Kaapvaal Craton. It is the younger Group of rocks that contains the gold bearing conglomerates that are today of great economic importance. The largely underground horizontal extent of the Witwatersrand Supergroup is known as the Witwatersrand Basin.

    The ultimate source of the gold is unknown. It might be related to the collision of the Kaapvaal craton with the Zimbabwe cratoneventually to become knitted together to form a single continental unit. The red dot represents the epicenter of the impact. The locations of important towns and cities in the region are indicated in the appropriate places.

    Johannesburg is just within the outer edge of this impact crater. A schematic diagram of a NE left to SW right cross-section through the 2. The present erosion level is shown. Johannesburg is located where the Witwatersrand Basin yellow layer is exposed at the "present surface" line, just inside the crater rim, on the left.

    Note the present exposure of the basement granite, known as the "Johannesburg Dome", belonging to the Kaapvaal cratonto the north of Johannesburg city center.

    There are unfortunately no gold deposits in these outcrops. The meteor impact, however, lowered the Witwatersrand rocks within the crater. This protected them from erosion later on; but, possibly more importantly, bringing them to the surface close to the crater rim, near Johannesburg.

    Iron pyrite FeS2which is relatively plentiful in the gold ores of the Witwatersrand, oxidises to insoluble ferric oxide Fe2O3 and sulfuric acid H2SO4.

    Thus, when mine waste comes into contact with oxygenated rainwater, sulfuric acid is released into the ground water. Acid mine drainageas the phenomenon is called, has become a major ecological problem, because it dissolves many of the heavy elements, such as the uraniumcadmiumleadzinccopperarsenic and mercury found in the mine dumps, facilitating their passage into surface water and ground water.

    Harrison declared his claim with the then-government of the Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek ZARand in September President Paul Kruger issued a proclamation declaring nine farms public mining diggings, starting on 20 September Harrison's original Zoekers' in English: His brother Thomas was the first chairman.
    Advanced civilizations appeared several thousand years ago, but much of the mechanical ingenuity we know in modern times began to develop only around the Industrial Revolution a couple hundred years ago.

    Oopart out-of-place artifact is a term applied to dozens of prehistoric objects found in various places around the world that seem to show a level of technological advancement incongruous with the times in which they were made. Many scientists attempt to explain them using natural phenomena.

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    Others say such explanations ignore the mounting evidence that prehistoric civilizations possessed advanced technological knowledge that was lost throughout the ages only to be redeveloped in modern times. We will look at a variety of ooparts here ranging in purported origin from millions of years ago to merely hundreds of years ago, but all said to show advancement well ahead of their time.

    This is not a comprehensive list of all ooparts, but it is a substantial sampling. An illustration of a Baghdad battery from museum artifact pictures. As far as we know, nobody else has found anything like these. Ancient Egyptian Light Bulb? The light-bulb-like object engraved in a crypt under the Temple of Hathor in Egypt. Public Domain Inin what is now known as Rockwall Co.

    He found they were all magnetized the same way, suggesting they formed where they are and were not moved to that site from elsewhere. But some remain unconvinced by this single TV-show test and ask for further studies.

    Geologist James Shelton and Harvard-trained architect John Lindsey have noted elements that seem to be of architectural design, including archways, linteled portals, and square openings that resemble windows.

    Nuclear reactor site, Oklo, Gabon Republic. The uranium had already been extracted. They found the site of origin to have apparently functioned as a large-scale nuclear reactor that came into being 1. The water must be extremely pure, for one. Much purer than exists naturally. The material U is necessary for nuclear fission to occur.

    It is one of the isotopes found naturally in uranium. Several specialists in reactor engineering have said they believe the uranium in Oklo could not have been rich enough in U for a reaction to take place naturally. A portion of the Piri Reis map of Public Domain A map created by Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis inbut sourced from various earlier maps, is thought by some to depict Antarctica as it was in a very remote age before it was covered with ice.

    A landmass is shown to jut out from the southern coastline of South America. Hapgood — was one of the first to publicly suggest that the Piri Reis map depicts Antarctica during a prehistoric time. He was a Harvard-educated historian whose theories about geological shifts earned the admiration of Albert Einstein. He hypothesized that the land masses shifted, explaining why Antarctica is shown as connected to South America.

    Wikimedia Commons In A. How exactly it works remains a mystery, but replicas have worked with a precision comparable to modern instruments. No one had felt the quake in Luoyang and dismissed the warning until a messenger arrived days later requesting aid. Baigong Cave, with photo of pipe in the bottom left Caves near Mount Baigong in China contain pipes leading to a nearby lake. They were dated by the Beijing Institute of Geology to aboutyears ago, according to Brian Dunning of Skeptoid.

    State-run media Xinhua reported that the pipes were analyzed at a local smeltery and 8 percent of the material could not be identified. Antikythera Mechanism The Antikythera Mechanism is a year-old mechanical device used to calculate the positions of the sun, moon, planets, and even the dates of the ancient Olympic Games.

    A drill bit had been found encapsulated in coal about 22 inches thick, buried in a bed of clay mixed with boulders about 7 feet thick. The Society decided that the instrument was of a modern level of advancement. Top left, bottom right: Spheres, known as Klerksdorp spheres, found in the pyrophyllite wonderstone deposits near Ottosdal, South Africa. Robert Huggett Top right, bottom left: Similar objects known as Moqui marbles from the Navajo Sandstone of southeast Utah. Paul Heinrich Spheres with fine grooves around them found in mines in South Africa have been said by some to be naturally formed masses of mineral matter.

    Others have said they were precisely shaped by a prehistoric human hand. The Hidden History of the Human Race. If they are mineral masses, it is unclear how exactly they formed.

    Iron Pillar of Delhi An inscription from about A. It remains rust-free and is of an astounding purity. In modern times, wrought iron has been made with a purity of Its carbon content is three times higher than other swords of its time and impurities were removed to such a degree that the iron ore must have been heated to at least 3, degrees Fahrenheit. A hammer was found in London, Texas, in encased in stone that had formed around it.

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    The rock surrounding the hammer is said to be more than million years old. Some limestone has formed around artifacts known to be from the 20th century, so concretions can form fairly quickly around objects, he said. Concretions are masses of hardened mineral matter.

    Carl Baugh, who is in possession of the artifact, has said the wooden handle has turned to coal evidence of its great age and that the metal it is made of has a strange composition. Critics have called for more, independent testing to verify these claims, but thus far no such testing has been conducted.

    Workers at a stone quarry near Aix-en-Provence, France, in the 18th century came across tools stuck in a layer of limestone 50 feet underground. The presence of man had then preceded the formation of this stone, and that very considerably since he was already arrived at such a degree of civilization that the arts were known to him, and that he wrought the stone and formed columns out of it. What appears to be remnants of such a bridge have been seen from satellite images, but many say it is a natural formation.

    Badrinarayanan, former director of the Geological Survey of India, studied core samples from the bridge. He was puzzled by the appearance of boulders on top of a marine sand layer, and surmised that the boulders must have been artificially placed there. No single natural explanation has been agreed upon by geologists.

    Dating has been controversial, as some say any given part of the bridge such as coral samples cannot give a true picture of how old the entire bridge is.

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    Inthree people were out searching for geodes for their gem and gift shop in Olancha, Calif. Virginia Maxey, one of the three discoverers, said at the time that a geologist examined the fossils around the device and dated the device atyears or older.

    The geologist was never named, and the current whereabouts of the artifact are unknown. Critics of the claim, Pierre Stromberg and Paul V. They think it was a modern spark plug encased in a quick-forming concretion rather than a geode. Prehistoric Wall Near Bahamas? A wall of rock in large, thick block shapes was found off the coast of the Bahamas in Archaeologist William Donato has conducted multiple dives to investigate the wall and hypothesizes it is a man-made structure some 12, to 19, years old built to protect a prehistoric settlement from waves.

    Eugene Shinn, a retired geologist who worked for the U. Geological Survey, has said core rock samples he took show a dip toward deep water. If all the cores show a dip toward deep water, this would prove the rock formed where it is and did not form elsewhere later to be transported by humans to its present location.

    His later writings said that all of his samples showed this dip, seeming to prove it is a natural formation. But his earlier study stated that only 25 percent of his samples showed a dip.
    There are two main methods of mining - surface mining and underground mining.

    In some locations a combination of these methods is used. Surface mining Surface mining is exactly what the word says - digging rocks out from the surface, forming a hole or pit. In South Africa, this method is used to mine for iron, copper, chromium, manganese, phosphate and coal.

    Surface mining is also known as open pit or open cast mining. An open pit coal mine. South Africa is one of the seven largest coal producing countries in the world. A quarter of the coal mined in South Africa is exported, mostly through Richards Bay. Let's look at coal as an example.

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    For surface mining, the minerals need to be close to the surface of the Earth. Most of the coal found in South Africa is shallow enough for surface mining. Usually the rocks are present in layers. To expose the coal layer, the layers above it need to be removed.

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    The vegetation and soil, called the topsoil, is removed and kept aside so that it can be re-deposited in the area after mining. If there is a layer of rock above the coal face, called the overburden, this is also removed before the coal can be excavated. Once all the coal has been removed, the overburden and topsoil are replaced to help in restoring the natural vegetation of the area.

    This is called rehabilitation. There is a growing emphasis on the need to rehabilitate old mine sites that are no longer in use. If it is too difficult to restore the site to what it was before, then a new type of land use might be decided for that area.

    Surface mining coal and mine rehabilitation. In Phalaborwa in Limpopo province, copper ore is mined using open pit mining. This open pit is one of the world's largest open pit mines. It is 2 km across and the largest man-made hole in Africa. Read more about the Phalaborwa Mine. When you mine you are digging into solid rock. The rock needs to be broken up into smaller pieces before it can be removed.

    Holes are drilled in the rock and explosives, like dynamite, are placed inside the holes to blast the rock into pieces.

    The pieces are still very large and extremely heavy. The rocks are loaded onto very large haul trucks and removed. Sometimes the rocks ore are crushed at the mining site to make them easier to transport. Mining trucks are enormous. They are up to 6 meters tall, that's higher than most houses. These trucks can carry tons of material and their engines have an output times more powerful than a car engine.

    Coal surface mining - watch some of the heavy machinery in action.

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    Do you remember learning about how coal is formed? What is coal made from? This is revision of what learners have covered in previous grades. Coal is formed from fossilised plant matter which is compressed and heated over millions of years to eventually form coal. A mining haul truck being loaded with coal. Underground mining Shaft mining Often the minerals are not found close to the surface of the Earth, but deeper down.

    In these cases underground mining, also called shaft mining, is used. Examples of underground mining in South Africa are mining for diamonds, gold and sometimes the platinum group metals PGM. The PGMs are six transition metals usually found together in ore. South Africa has the highest known reserves of PGMs in the world. Igneous and metamorphic rock is found where gold is mined. Sometimes the ore is very deep, which is often the case with diamonds or gold ore.

    In these cases mine shafts go vertically down and side tunnels make it possible for the miners and equipment to reach the ore. A structure called the headgear is constructed above the shaft and controls the lift system into the vertical shaft.

    Using the lift, it can take miners up to an hour to reach the bottom of the shaft. Coal miners used to take a canary with them down the mines. If the canary died, they knew that oxygen levels were being dangerously depleted and that it was not safe to remain underground.

    It is 3,9 km deep and has km of tunnels. Working this deep underground is very dangerous. South Africa is a leader in the field of deep underground mining as we have several mines deeper than 3 km. Gold mining in South Africa South Africa is a world leader in the gold mining industry. We have been doing gold mining for more than a century and our mines are the deepest in the world. Until we were the leading producer of gold in the world.

    Gold is a lustrous, precious metal which has a very high conductivity. What mining method is used to mine for gold? Underground mining or shaft mining. What type of rock is found where gold is mined? Igneous rock, or metamorphic rock. What is gold used for? Jewelry, ornaments and decoration, electronics in computers and cell phones. Do you think gold mining is dangerous? Why do you say so? Yes it is, the mines are very deep, of the deepest in the world. Mining deep underground is difficult and dangerous because of the heat and lack of oxygen.

    Rocks can also collapse because of the pressure. Provide labels for numbers in the following diagram. Lift to take miners into the mine or down the vertical shaft 3.

    For Derrick, the suggested compatible algal by InterracialDatingCentral beaten him enough to talk.

    Other two months of signing up Taking and Will had found each other. Notwithstanding the upper between them, its geographical location now ever stronger by the day.

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