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    Part VI of his Christmas Oratorio, Herr, wenn die stolzen Feinde schnaubenwas also designed to be performed during the service for Epiphany. Another popular hymn, less known culturally as a carol, is "Songs of thankfulness and praise", with words written by Christopher Wordsworth and commonly sung to the tune "St.

    Edmund" by Charles Steggall. A carol used as an anthem for Epiphany is " The Three Kings ". Date of celebration[ edit ] Untilwhen Pope Pius XII abolished all but three liturgical octavesthe Latin Church celebrated Epiphany as an eight-day feast, known as the Octave of Epiphany, beginning on January 6 and ending on January The Sunday within that octave was since the feast of the Holy Familyand Christmastide was reckoned as the twelve days ending on January 5, followed by the January 6—13 octave.

    The revision of the General Roman Calendar made the date to some extent variable, stating: Today, The Epiphany of our Lord, [46] classified as a Principal Feastis observed in some Anglican provinces on January 6 exclusively e.

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    Some, as in Greece, employ the modern Revised Julian calendarwhich until the year coincides with the Gregorian calendarthe one in use for civil purposes in most countries. Other Eastern churches, as in Russiahold to the older Julian calendar for reckoning church dates. In these old-calendar churches Epiphany falls at present on Gregorian January 19 — which is January 6 in the Julian calendar. Epiphany season In some Churches, the feast of the Epiphany initiates the Epiphany seasonalso known as Epiphanytide.

    In Adventthe Church of EnglandMother Church of the Anglican Communionintroduced into its liturgy an optional Epiphany season by approving the Common Worship series of services as an alternative to those in the Book of Common Prayerwhich remains the Church's normative liturgy and in which no such liturgical season appears.

    An official publication of the Church of England states: Contemporary use has sought to express an alternative tradition, in which Christmas lasts for a full forty days, ending with the Feast of the Presentation on 2 February. Some Methodists in the United States and Singapore follow these liturgics. It instead uses the term "Ordinary Time".

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    If a year had more than 24 Sundays after Pentecost, up to four unused post-Epiphany Sundays were inserted between the 23rd and the 24th Sunday after Pentecost. The Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices, which has received the imprimatur of John Michael D'Arcywith reference to Epiphanytide, thus states that "The Epiphany season extends from January 6 to Septuagesima Sunday, and has from one to six Sundays, according to the date of Easter. White is the color for the octave; green is the liturgical color for the season.

    For Western Christians, the feast primarily commemorates the coming of the Magi, with only a minor reference to the baptism of Jesus and the miracle at the Wedding at Cana. Eastern churches celebrate the Baptism of Christ in the Jordan. In both traditions, the essence of the feast is the same: The miracle at the Wedding at Cana is also celebrated during Epiphany as a first manifestation of Christ's public life.

    Liturgical practice in Western churches[ edit ] Many in the West observe a twelve-day festival, starting on December 25, and ending on January 5, known as Christmastide or the Twelve Days of Christmas.

    Some Christian cultures, especially those of Latin America and some in Europe, extend the season to as many as forty days, ending on Candlemas February 2. On the Feast of the Epiphany in some parts of central Europe the priest, wearing white vestments, blesses Epiphany water, frankincensegold, and chalk. The chalk is used to write the initials of the three magi over the doors of churches and homes.

    The letters stand for the initials of the Magi traditionally named CasparMelchiorand Balthasarand also the phrase Christus mansionem benedicat, which translates as "may Christ bless the house". According to ancient custom, the priest announced the date of Easter on the feast of Epiphany. This tradition dated from a time when calendars were not readily available, and the church needed to publicize the date of Eastersince many celebrations of the liturgical year depend on it.

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    Some Protestant churches, such as the Anglican and Lutheran churches, will follow practises similar to the Catholic Church. Here it is one of the Great Feasts of the liturgical yearbeing third in rank, behind only Paskha Easter and Pentecost in importance.

    It is celebrated on January 6 of the calendar that a particular Church uses. On the Julian calendarwhich some of the Orthodox churches follow, that date corresponds, during the present century, to January 19 on the Gregorian or Revised Julian calendar. The earliest reference to the feast in the Eastern Church is a remark by St. Clement of Alexandria in StromateisI, xxi, And there are those who have determined not only the year of our Lord's birth, but also the day… And the followers of Basilides hold the day of his baptism as a festival, spending the night before in readings.

    And they say that it was the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesarthe fifteenth day of the month of Tubi ; and some that it was the eleventh of the same month. If this is a reference to a celebration of Christ's birth, as well as of his baptism, on January 6, it corresponds to what continues to be the custom of the Armenian Apostolic Churchwhich celebrates the birth of Jesus on January 6 of the calendar used, calling the feast that of the Nativity and Theophany of Our Lord. In parts of the Eastern Church, January 6 continued for some time as a composite feast that included the Nativity of Jesus: It is also celebrated because, according to tradition, the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River by St.

    John the Baptist marked one of only two occasions when all three Persons of the Trinity manifested themselves simultaneously to humanity: God the Father by speaking through the clouds, God the Son being baptized in the river, and God the Holy Spirit in the shape of a dove descending from heaven the other occasion was the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor.

    Thus the holy day is considered to be a Trinitarian feast. The Orthodox consider Jesus' Baptism to be the first step towards the Crucifixionand there are some parallels in the hymnography used on this day and the hymns chanted on Good Friday. Liturgical practice in Eastern churches[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.

    Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Forefeast: The liturgical Forefeast of Theophany begins on January 1, and concludes with the Paramony on January 5. The Eve of the Feast is called Paramony Greek: Paramony is observed as a strict fast dayon which those faithful who are physically able, refrain from food until the first star is observed in the evening, when a meal with wine and oil may be taken.

    On this day the Royal Hours are celebrated, thus tying together the feasts of Nativity and Good Friday. Basil which combines Vespers with the Divine Liturgy. During the Vespers, fifteen Old Testament lections which foreshadow the Baptism of Christ are read, and special antiphons are chanted. John Chrysostom is celebrated and the fasting is lessened to some degree.

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    Theophany Crucession in Bulgaria. The priests are going to throw a wooden cross in the Yantra river. Believers will then jump into the icy waters to "save" the cross. Following the Divine Liturgythe clergy and people go in a Crucession procession with the cross to the nearest body of water, be it a beach, harbor, quay, river, lake, swimming pool, water depot, etc. At the end of the ceremony the priest will bless the waters. In the Greek practice, he does this by casting a cross into the water.

    If swimming is feasible on the spot, any number of volunteers may try to recover the cross. The person who gets the cross first swims back and returns it to the priest, who then delivers a special blessing to the swimmer and their household.

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    Certain such ceremonies have achieved particular prominence, such as the one held annually at Tarpon SpringsFlorida. In Russia, where the winters are severe, a hole will be cut into the ice so that the waters may be blessed. In such conditions, the cross is not cast into the water, but is held securely by the priest and dipped three times into the water. Greek Orthodox bishop at the Great Blessing of Waters on Theophany, releasing the cross off the Glenelg Jetty, South Australiafor one of the swimmers below to retrieve.

    The water that is blessed on this day is sometimes known as "Theophany Water", though usually just "holy water", and is taken home by the faithful, and used with prayer as a blessing.

    People will not only bless themselves and their homes by sprinkling with holy water, but will also drink it. The Orthodox Church teaches that holy water differs from regular water in that with holy water, the very nature of the water is changed and becomes incorrupt, [71] a miracle attested to as early as St. Alleluia," in place of the Trisagion. On Theophany the priest will begin making the round of the parishioner's homes to bless them. He will perform a short prayer service in each home, and then go through the entire house, gardens and outside-buildings, blessing them with the newly blessed Theophany Water, while all sing the Troparion and Kontakion of the feast.

    This is normally done on Theophany, or at least during the Afterfeastbut if the parishioners are numerous, and especially if many live far away from the church, it may take some time to bless each house. Traditionally, these blessings should all be finished before the beginning of Great Lent. The Feast of Theophany is followed by an eight-day Afterfeast on which the normal fasting laws are suspended. The Saturday and Sunday after Theophany have special readings assigned to them, which relate to the Temptation of Christ and to penance and perseverance in the Christian struggle.

    There is thus a liturgical continuum between the Feast of Theophany and the beginning of Great Lent. Oriental Orthodox[ edit ] In the Ethiopian Orthodox Churchthe feast is known as Timkat and is celebrated on the day that the Gregorian calendar calls January 19, but on January 20 in years when Enkutatash in the Ethiopian calendar falls on Gregorian September 12 i. The celebration of this feast features blessing of water and solemn processions with the sacred tabot. A priest carries this to a body of water where it stays overnight, with the Metsehafe Qeddassie celebrated in the early morning.

    Later in the morning, the water is blessed to the accompaniment of the reading of the four Gospel accounts of the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan and the people are sprinkled with or go into the water. The tabot returns in procession to the church. Among the Syriac Christians the feast is called denho up-goinga name to be connected with the notion of rising light expressed in Luke 1: The feast is preceded by a seven-day fast.

    On the eve of the feast, the Divine Liturgy is celebrated. This liturgy is referred to as the Chragaluytsi Patarag the Eucharist of the lighting of the lamps in honor of the manifestation of Jesus as the Son of God. Both the Armenian Apostolic Church's and Assyrian Church of the East 's liturgy is followed by a blessing of water, during which the cross is immersed in the water, symbolizing Jesus' descent into the Jordan, and holy myron chrism is poured in, symbolic of the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Jesus.

    The next morning, after the Liturgy, the cross is removed from the vessel of holy water and all come forward to kiss the cross and partake of the blessed water. National and local customs[ edit ] A traditional Bulgarian all-male horo dance in ice-cold water on Theophany Epiphany is celebrated with a wide array of customs around the world.

    In some cultures, the greenery and nativity scenes put up at Christmas are taken down at Epiphany. In other cultures these remain up until Candlemas on February 2. In countries historically shaped by Western Christianity Roman CatholicismProtestantism these customs often involve gift giving, "king cakes" and a celebratory close to the Christmas season.

    In traditionally Orthodox nations, water, baptismal rites and house blessings are typically central to these celebrations. The night of January 5 into the morning of January 6 is known as "Noche de Reyes" The Night of Kings and children leave their shoes by the door, along with grass and water for the camels. In the morning of January 6, they get a present. On January 6, a "Rosca de Reyes" a ring-shaped Epiphany cake is eaten and all Christmas decorations are traditionally put away.
    It is a land rich in natural resources, with recent oil discoveries putting it among the world leaders in potential oil reserves.

    The newly independent Republic of Kazakhstan ranks ninth in the world in geographic size roughly the size of Western Europe and is the largest country in the world without an ocean port.

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    The Kazakhs, a Turkic people ethnically tied to the Uighur We-goor people of western China and similar in appearance to Mongolians, emerged in from over sixty years of life behind the Iron Curtain. Kazakhstan, which officially became a full Soviet socialist republic inwas an important but often neglected place during Soviet times.

    It was to Kazakhstan that Joseph Stalin exiled thousands of prisoners to some of his most brutal gulags. It was also to Kazakhstan that he repatriated millions of people of all different ethnicities, in an effort to "collectivize" the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was also the site of the Soviet nuclear test programs and Nikita Khrushchev's ill-conceived "Virgin Lands" program.

    These seventy years seem to have had a profound and long-lasting effect on these formerly nomadic people. The process of shedding the Soviet Union and starting anew as the democratic Republic of Kazakhstan is made difficult by the fact that a large percentage of Kazakhstan is not Kazakh.

    Russians still make up Many of the non-Kazakh people of Kazakhstan have met attempts by the Kazakh government to make Kazakh the central, dominant culture of Kazakhstan with great disdain and quiet, nonviolent resistance.

    The picture is further complicated by the fact that many Kazakhs and non-Kazakhs are struggling out of work and living below the poverty level. Democracy and independence have been hard sells to a people who grew accustomed to the comforts and security of Soviet life. Kazakhstan, approximately 1 million square miles 2, square kilometers in size, is in Central Asia, along the historic Silk Road that connected Europe with China more than two thousand years ago.

    Five nations border current-day Kazakhstan: China to the east; Russia to the north; the Caspian Sea to the west; and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan to the south. A pair of beautiful mountain ranges, the Altay and the Tien Shan, with peaks nearly as high as 22, feet 7, metersruns along Kazakhstan's southeastern border.

    The area north and west of this is the vast Kazakh steppe. Life on the steppe is harsh, with extreme temperatures and intense winds. The lands leading up to the Caspian Sea in the west are below sea level and rich in oil. The historic Aral Sea is on Kazakhstan's southern border with Uzbekistan.

    In recent years the sea has severely decreased in size and even split into two smaller seas due to environmental mismanagement. The climate of Kazakhstan is extremely variable.

    The very south experiences hot summers, with temperatures routinely over degrees Fahrenheit 38 degrees Celsius.

    The very north, which is technically southern Siberia, has extreme winters, with lows of well below 0 degrees Fahrenheit degrees Celsiuswith strong winds, making the temperature feel like to degrees Fahrenheit Kazakhstan to degrees Celsius. There are beautiful parts of Kazakhstan, with lakes and mountains that would rival many tourist destinations in the world.

    There are also parts of Kazakhstan that are flat and barren, making it seem at times like a forsaken place. The capital of Kazakhstan was moved in to Astana, in the north-central part of the country far from any of Kazakhstan's borders. The former capital, Almaty, is still the largest city and most important financial and cultural center. It is located at the base of the Tien Shan Mountains in the far southeast near both China and Kyrgyzstan. The move of the capital was very controversial among many in Kazakhstan.

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    There are three main theories as to why the move was made. The first theory contends that the move was for geopolitical, strategic reasons.

    Since Almaty is near the borders with China and Kyrgyzstan which is a friend but too close to the Islamic insurgent movements of Tajikistan and Afghanistanthis theory maintains that the new, central location provides the government with a capital city well separated from its neighbors.

    A second theory asserts that the capital was moved because Kazakh president Nursultan Nazarbayev wanted to create a beautiful new capital with new roads, buildings, and an airport. The final theory holds that the Kazakh government wanted to repatriate the north with Kazakhs.

    Moving the capital to the north would move jobs mostly held by Kazakhs and people there, changing the demographics and lessening the likelihood of the area revolting or of Russia trying to reclaim it. The population of Kazakhstan was estimated to be 16, in July A census taken just after the fall of the Soviet Union in indicated a population of more than 17 million.

    The decreasing nature of Kazakhstan's population. Given the emigration, Kazakhstan's ethnic make up is ever-changing. For the best estimates were Kazakhs 46 percent, Russians Many observers predict that continued emigration by non-Kazakhs and encouraged higher birthrates of Kazakhs by the government will lead to Kazakhs increasing their numbers relative to other ethnicities in Kazakhstan. Language is one of the most contentious issues in Kazakhstan.

    While many countries have used a common language to unite disparate ethnic communities, Kazakhstan has not been able to do so. Kazakh, the official state language of Kazakhstan, is a Turkic language spoken by only 40 percent of the people. Russian, which is spoken by virtually everyone, is the official language and is the interethnic means of communications among Russians, Kazakhs, Koreans, and others. The move to nationalize Kazakhstan through the use of Kazakh has presented two main problems.

    During Soviet times, when Russian was the only real language of importance, Kazakh failed to keep up with the changing vocabulary of the twentieth century. In addition, Russian is still very important in the region. Knowledge of Russian allows Kazakhstan to communicate with the fourteen other former Soviet republics as well as with many people in their own country.

    Kazakhs are historically a nomadic people, and thus many of their cultural symbols reflect nomadic life. The horse is probably the most central part of Kazakh culture.

    Kazakhs love horses, riding them for transportation in the villages, using them for farming, racing them for fun, and eating them for celebrations. Many Kazakhs own horses and keep pictures of them in their houses or offices. Also a product of their formally nomadic lives is the yurt, a Central Asian dwelling resembling a tepee, which was transportable and utilitarian on the harsh Central Asian steppe.

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    These small white homes are still found in some parts of Kazakhstan, but for the most part they are used in celebrations and for murals and tourist crafts. Also central to Kazakh symbolism are Muslim symbols. Kazakhs are Muslim by history, and even after seventy years of Soviet atheism, they incorporate Islamic symbols in their everyday life. The traditionally Muslim star and crescent can be widely seen, as can small Muslim caps and some traditionally Muslim robes and headscarves in the villages.

    Kazakhs are also very proud of their mountains, rare animals such as snow leopards, eagles, and falcons a large eagle appears on the Kazakh flag under a rising sunand their national instrument, the dombra, a two-stringed instrument with a thin neck and potbelly base, resembling a guitar.

    The symbols of Soviet Kazakhstan still exist and are important to some people. At its peak there was hardly a town that did not have a statue of Lenin; a street named after the revolution; or a large hammer, sickle, and Soviet red star on many of its houses and public buildings.

    Much like the attempt to assert the Kazakh language, the increased use of Kazakh symbols on money, in schools, on television, and in national holidays has been tempered by those who do not wish to part with the Soviet symbols of the past. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Humans have inhabited the Central Asian steppe since the Stone Age. Dramatic seasonal variations coupled with movements, conflicts, and alliances of Turkic and Mongol tribes caused the people of Central Asia often to be on the move.

    In the eighth century a confederation of Turkish tribes, the Qarluqs, established the first state in Kazakhstan in what is now eastern Kazakhstan. Islam was introduced to the area in the eighth and ninth centuries, when Arabs conquered what is now southern Kazakhstan. The Oghuz Turks controlled western Kazakhstan until the eleventh century.

    The eleventh through the eighteenth centuries saw periodic control over Kazakhstan by Arabs, Turks, and Mongols. The people of Kazakhstan consider themselves great warriors and still honor many of the war heroes of this time period. What might be called the modern-day history of Kazakhstan started in the eighteenth century, when the three main hordes groups of Kazakh nomads who had begun to distinguish themselves linguistically and culturally from the Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, and Turkmen started seeking Russian protection from Oryat raiders from the Xhinjian area of western China.

    In the Russian garrison town of Verny modern-day Almaty was founded. It was not long before Russian incursions into Central Asia became much more frequent. By the end of the nineteenth century the Russians had a firm foothold in the area and were starting to exert their influence on the nomadic Kazakhs, setting the stage for the twentieth century transformation of the region by the Soviets. The Soviet Union's interaction with Kazakhstan started just after the October Revolution, with Lenin granting the peoples of Central Asia the right to self-determination.

    This did not last long, and during the s Moscow and the Red Army put down Muslim revolts throughout Central Asia after the Russian civil war. Centuries of nomadic tribal wars among Turks, Mongols, and Arabs were being replaced by a new kind of domination: In Kazakhstan was given union republic status, and in full Soviet socialist republic status—a status that did not change until Kazakhstan was the last Soviet republic to break from Moscow and declare independence, on 16 December The years between and were truly transformative for the people and land of Kazakhstan.

    Factories were built, schools reorganized, borders closed, and life changed in almost every facet. Soviet years were a time of immigration into Kazakhstan. Khrushchev's "Virgin Land" campaign in made much of Kazakhstan into farmland, run by huge collective farms, largely made up of the Russian and Ukrainian settlers brought in to run them. Soviet wars were also very difficult for this region. Kazakhstan was integral to the Soviet Union for its oil and minerals, fertile farmlands, tough warriorlike heritage, and its vast, wide-open lands suitable for nuclear testing.

    In the Soviet Union and the world got a glimpse of how intact Kazakh nationalism remained.

    The Work Of A Nation. The Center of Intelligence.

    Kazakhstan had been changed by the Soviet Union; its people looked and acted differently and its language had partially been neglected, but the Kazakh people were still proud of their history and their heritage. He had stayed faithful to Moscow the longest and supported Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to keep the Union intact. The years since have seen many changes in Kazakhstan and its people.

    Democracy is attempting to take root in a land that hasn't known democracy at any time in its three thousand-year history. Nomadism, tribal warfare, Mongol dynasties, foreign domination, and Soviet communism have been all the Kazakh land has known. Several factors that are unique to Kazakhstan, its land, and its history, unite its people. Kazakhstanis are proud of the nation's abundant natural resources, agricultural potential, and natural beauty. They are also united in their shared history as a neglected republic during the Soviet years.

    While they toiled under Soviet rule, producing much of the agricultural and industrial product for the Soviet Union, the rest of the Union looked upon Kazakhstan as a barren place. A very structured and uniform educational system exists in Kazakhstan.

    All ethnicities, whether urban or rural, study a similar curriculum. Thus, students throughout the country share the same education.

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